Topic #16 Overview Sheet

  Assignment #1




  1. What technological innovations of the late 19c transformed communications and business operations?
  2. What new methods were developed for the large-scale production of durable steel?  Where were the principal American centers of steel production and ore extraction?
  3. What was the relationship between the steel industry and the railroads?
  4. What technological development profoundly changed the oil industry?
  5. Although the age of the automobile would not fully arrive until the 1920s, what developments of the 1890s and early 1900s laid the basis for the later boom?
  6. Describe the emergence of organized corporate research and its impact on American economic development.  What role did universities play in this process?
  7. Explain the concepts of "scientific management" and "mass production."  Who were the leading pioneers of these new approaches to industry?
  8. How did the railroad transform America economically and ecologically?
  9. What was the main legal principle that made buying stock in the modern corporation attractive to investors?
  10. Explain the new approach to management and business organization that accompanied the rise of large corporations.  What industries led in these developments?
  11. Compare and contrast the vertical and horizontal integration strategies of business combinations.  Which approaches did Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller use initially?  Why did they evolve toward using both strategies?
  12. How did financiers and industrialists use pools, trusts, and holding companies to expand their control.  What was the result of this trend toward corporate combination?
  13. Describe how the railroad created a truly national market.  Explain the ecological changes that accompanied this transformation.  Were the advantages worth the costs?
  14. How did popular culture keep alive the "rags-to-riches" and "self-made man" hopes of the American masses?  How realistic were such dreams?
  15. What parts of Horatio Alger's message often got lost in the public's mind at the time he wrote and later?  Why was this the case?
  16. Explain how the theories of Social Darwinism and classical economics complemented each other.  Who formulated those theories?  How did the great industrialists embody such concepts?
  17. Describe the "alternative visions" to the business-dominated view of society. How influential were such radical voices?
  18. What were the visible symptoms that many Americans blamed on the trend toward "monopoly?"


  Assignment #2




  1. What were the two sources of the massive migration into the industrial cities of the late 19c and early 20c?
  2. Contrast the earlier immigrants to the United States with those who dominated after the 1880s.  What attracted these migrants?  What tensions ensued?
  3. What happened to the standard of living of the average worker in the late 19c?  What physical hardships and psychological adjustments did many workers face?
  4. Why did industry increasingly employ women and children?  How ere they treated?
  5. What attitudes toward working women were exhibited by many adult male workers and their unions?
  6. What was the significance of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
  7. Compare and contrast the organization, leadership, membership [especially the role of women] and programs of the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor.
  8. Why did the AFL succeed, while the Knights of Labor disappeared by the end of the 19c?
  9. What methods were used by business to thwart labor reforms?
  10. Compare and contrast the Haymarket Riot, the Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Strike.  On balance, what was their effect on the organized labor movement?
  11. Why did labor union membership begin to decline in the late 1890s?
  12. What factors combined to help explain why organized labor remained relatively weak before World War I?


  1. Textbook Quizzes -->  chapter 17
  2. My Quizzes -->  A    B    C    D    E

Outlines / Lecture Notes / Review Sheets:
  1. APUSH Review Timeline (interactive)

  2. Giant AHAP Review Sheet by a student from the class of '04, Horace Greeley HS

  3. Lecture outline --> "Birth of Modern America - Industrialization" (Prof. David McGee, Central Virginia Community College)

  4. Timeline- 1851 to 1900

  5. Cram Sheet --> Ulysses S. Grant through Grover Cleveland

  6. Note Cards -->  751-800

  7. Presidential Election Data --> 1868     1872     1876     1880     1884     1888      1892

  8. "Industrialization" - chart (Mr. Perno)



Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing

College Board A. P. U. S. History Main Page (.pdf file)