Primary Source Documents
bullet 1846:  Portrait of a Nation
bullet Alamo
bullet "American Economic Growth--Moving South and Westward" - essay
bullet American Prophet--The Story of Joseph Smith (PBS)
bullet America's Wars--The Mexican-American War (PBS)
bullet American West- Empire Upon the Trails:  1806-1848 (PBS)
bullet "Anglo-American colonization in Texas" - Kjetil Ersdal (essay)
bullet Asian Treaties
bullet Augusta Canal
bullet "Ballad of Davy Crockett" - lyrics by Tom Blackburn (1950s)
bullet Biography of America:  Westward Expansion (1803-1861) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet California as I Saw It: First-Person Narratives, 1849-1900
bullet Cheasapeake and Ohio Canal 1820
bullet Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (National Park Site)
bullet Conner's Prairie Farm
bullet Coverlet Collection from the Frontier
bullet D & H Canal Historical Society (High Falls, NY)
bullet Deer Creek School in the Heart of Gold Country
bullet Descendants of the US-Mexican War
bullet Diaries, Narratives, and Letters of the Mountain Men
bullet Donner Online
bullet Donner Party (The American Experience PBS Series)
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Emigrant Diaries and Journals - The Oregon Territory and Its Pioneers (many docs.)

bullet Erie Canal:  A Journey Through History
bullet Erie Canal Home Page
bullet Early California History:  An Overview (LOC)
bullet Eliza McCardle Johnson (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Facts About the West During 1846
bullet Fifty Years in Oregon - from the diaries of T. T. Geer
bullet George Caleb Bingham: Artist of Missouri and the American Frontier
bullet George Catlin and His Indian Gallery
bullet Gold Fever (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Gold Rush!  California's Untold Stories
bullet Gold Rush Fast Facts
bullet Gold Rush (PBS Series)
bullet Gold Rush Chronicles
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1820        1830        1840        1850        1860
bullet A History of the Early American West - YouTube lectures by mini-documentary, historian Darren R. Reid (University of Edinburgh)
bullet History of the Erie Canal
bullet Hudson River Maritime Museum (Kingston, NY)
bullet Hudson River School (Artcyclopedia) - large links of artists & their works
bullet Hudson River School of Painting (1)
bullet Hudson River School of Painting (2)
bullet Images of the American West - many great photos
bullet Inland Navigation-Connecting the New Republic, 1790-1840
bullet James K. Polk - POTUS site
bullet James K. Polk - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Julia Boggs Dent Grant
bullet Levi Strauss & Co. Heritage
bullet Lest We Forget--People of Color on America's Western Frontier
bullet Library of Western Fur Trade Historical Source Documents--Diaries, Narratives, and Letters of the Mountain
bullet "Manifest Destiny" - Michael T. Lubragge (essay)
bullet "Manifest Destiny: The Old v. The New" - chart
bullet Map-->"The Oregon Trail:  1843" (interactive)
bullet Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Mexican-American War - Documents
bullet The Mexican War and Slavery - political cartoons (lesson plan)
bullet Mormonism and the American Mainstream
bullet Mountain Men & the Fur Trade (American Northwest)
bullet Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet Northwest of the West- the Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast
bullet Oregon Territory and It's Pioneers
bullet Oregon Trail
bullet Oregon Trail:  Across the Plains in 1843
bullet Paintings and Photos of Manifest Destiny
bullet The Papers of President James K. Polk (Univ. of VA)
bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) -- 1844    1848    1852    1856   
bullet Robert Fulton (PBS)
bullet Sam Houston Memorial Museum
bullet San Francisco & the Gold Rush: 1840s-1850s
bullet Sarah Childress Polk (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Secrets of a Master Builder--How James Eads Tamed the Mighty Mississippi (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Spain, United States, & the American Frontier
bullet Stories from the Gold Rush
bullet Thomas Cole National Historic Site (including a Cole virtual gallery)
bullet Trail of Hope (The Story of the Mormon Trail) - PBS
bullet Trains of the American West
bullet Transcontinental Railroad
bullet Truimph and Tragedy- Women's Voices from the Oregon Trail
bullet The U. S.-Mexican War (PBS)
bullet Western Immigration
bullet Western Trails (many links)
bullet Westward by Sea- A Maritime Perspective on American Expansion, 1820-1890 (LOC)
bullet Wild! Wild! West! - huge site of weblinks
bullet Women of the West
bullet Zachary Taylor - POTUS site
bullet Zachary Taylor - Miller Institute, University of Virginia

 
                                           Web Links
                                  
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
 
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1790-1860:  Table Showing Data On the Percentage of Urban Population, 1790 - 1860

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1810:  Sell a Country! Why Not Sell the Air? - Tecumseh to General William Henry Harrison

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1810:  Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet, Speeches

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1818:  Building of the Erie Canal - William H. Seward (1818-1825)

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1823:  Captured By Indians- Mary Jemison Becomes an Indian

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1823:  Johnson v. McIntosh

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1823:  "The Morality of Manufactures" - Nile's Weekly Register

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1823-1839:  Various documents on the removal of the Cherokee Nation     (additional documents)

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1824:  Gottfried Duden - Letters - Frontier and Wilderness Life (1824-1825)

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1824:  Mexican Colonization Law

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1825:  Peter Skene Ogden's Journal of His Journey into Utah

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1826:  Diet and Health of Frontier Women - Gottfried Dudden

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1826:  The Expeditions of Jedediah Strong Smith

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1826:  The Last of the Mohicans - James Fenimore Cooper

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1827:  Elias Boudimott Proposes a Cherokee Newspaper

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1827:  "View Near the Village of Catskill" - painting by Thomas Cole

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1828:  Regulation for Colonization of Mexican Territories

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1828:  Treaty With the Potawatami

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1830:  "Niagara Falls" - painting by Thomas Cole

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1831:  The Burlend Family Encounters America’s System for Populating the West, Pike Country, IL

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1831:  Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

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1832:  Autobiography of John Ball - Across the Plains to Oregon

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1832:  Nathaniel Wyeth's Journals of His Expeditions into the OR Country (1832-1834)

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1832:  Worcester v. Georgia

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1833:  Life of Black Hawk

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1834:  Letter by Davy Crockett on Andrew Jackson and Crockett's moving to Texas

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1835:  The Canal Boat - Nathaniel Hawthorne Travels the Erie Canal

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1835:  Declaration of the People of Texas (11/7)

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1835:  "Nature's Wonderland" - painting by Thomas Doughty

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1836:  “Everything Here is New But the Forests” - Englishman Thomas Woodcock Travels to Niagara on the Erie Canal

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1836:  Land Speculation in the 1830s - William Leggitt

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1836:  Memorial and Protest of the Cherokee Nation

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1836:  Stephen Austin - address delivered at Louisville

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1836:  Texas Declaration of Independence

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1836:  Treaty of Velasco - between the U. S. and Mexico

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1836:  William Travis' Letter From the Commandancy of the Alamo

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1837:  Steps of Expansion - José María Tomel y Mendívil, "Relations Between Texas, The United States of America and the Mexican Republic," (Mexico)

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1839:  "Manifest Destiny" - John L. O'Sullivan

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1839:  Poster circulated in Philadelphia to discourage the coming of the railroad

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1840:  An American View of Mexican California - Richard Henry Dana, Jr.

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1840:  "Fenimore Cooper's Libels on America and Americans" - anonymous

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1841:  The Deerslayer; or, The First Warpath . . . - James Fenimore Cooper

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1842:  “A Foreigner in My Own Land” - Juan Nepomuceno Seguin Flees Texas

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1842:  Webster-Ashburton Treaty

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1843:  Democracy and Liberty - Orestes Brownson

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1844:  Across the Plains in 1844 - from the journals of Catherine Sager Pringle

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1844:  Democratic Party Platform          Whig Party Platform

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1844:  George Caitlin's North American Indian Portfolio

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1844:  "Martyrdom of Joseph & Hiram Smith in Carthage Jail" - lithograph

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1844:  "Mr. Van Buren" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 15, Issue 73, July 1844

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1844:  "Native Americanism" -The Tribune. v. 4. n. 186 (11/11)

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1844:  "The Re-Annexation of Texas, in its Influence on the Duration of Slavery" - The United  States Democratic Review / Volume 15, Issue 73, July 1844

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1845:  "American Enterprise in Steam Navigation" - The American Whig Review / Volume 2, Issue 1,  July 1845

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1845:  Congressional Resolution for Texas Annexation

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1845:  Daily Wage Rates on the Erie Canal, 1845-1870 - statistical chart

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1845:  "The Great Nation of Futurity" - John L. O'Sullivan

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1845:  Inaugural Address of James K. Polk

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1845:  "Mr. Clay - The Texas Question" - The American Whig Review / Volume 1, Issue 1, Jan 1845

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1845:  "The Oregon Question" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 16, Issue 84, June 1845

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1845:  "The Tariff Question" - The American Whig Review / Volume 2, Issue 2, August 1845

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1845:  Resolution Annexing Texas to the United States (3/1)

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1845:  "Territorial Aggrandizement" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 17, Issue 88, October

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1845:  Treaty for the Annexation of Texas (March 1, 1845)

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1845:  "The Whig Party, Its Position, and Duties" - The American Whig Review / Volume 2, Issue 6, December

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1845:  "Will There Be War with Mexico?" - The American Whig Review / Volume 2, Issue 3, September 1845

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1846:  "Administration of Indian Affairs" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 18, Issue 95, May

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1846:  "Boatmen on the Missouri" - painting by George Caleb

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1846:  “A Hungery Savage Look which was Truly Fearful” - Samuel Chamberlain’s Recollections of the Mexican War

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1846:  The Mexican War & Slavery - political cartoons (1846-1848)

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1846:  “More Like A Pig Than a Bear ”- Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo Is Taken Prisoner During the Bear Flag Revolt

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1846:  "The Oregon Question: War and Peace" - The American Whig Review / Volume 3, Issue 2, February 1846

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1846:  The Oregon Treaty 

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1846:  "The Oregon Treaty" - The American Whig Review / Volume 4, Issue 2, August

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1846:  President Polk's War Message

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1846:  "Table of the new rates of toll on the Erie canal, as established by the canal board, and in effect on said canal" - broadside

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1846:  Wilmot Proviso

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1847:  "Against the Mexican War" - Thomas Corwin

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1847:  David Wilmot Argues for a Free California

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1847:  The Donner Party's Log Entries (Jan., 1847)

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1847:  Elizabeth Dixon Smith Geer, pioneer journal (1847-1850) - full journal entries

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1847:  “For Oregon!” - Settlers From Illinois Describe the New Territory

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1847:  Mexican War - assorted doc. (PBS) 

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1847:  "The Mexican War - Its Origin and Conduct" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 20, Issue 106, April

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1847:  "Sam Houston and his Republic" - The American Whig Review / Volume 5, Issue 6, Jun 1847

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1847:  "Mr. Slidell's Mission to Mexico" - The American Whig Review / Volume 5, Issue 4, Apr 1847

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1847:  "The President's Message: The War" - The American Whig Review / Volume 5, Issue 1, Jan 1847

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1847:  "The Whigs and the War" - The American Whig Review / Volume 6, Issue 4, Oct 1847

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1848:  "The Administration: its Treatment of General Scott" - The American Whig Review / Volume 7 Issue 6, June 1848

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1848:  Democratic Party Platform          Whig Party Platform

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1848:  "The Leg I Left Behind Me" - song on the Mexican War

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1848:  Letter by Abraham Lincoln on the Mexican War

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1848:  "The Mexican War - Its Origin, its Justice and its Consequences" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 22, Issue 115, Jan 1848

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1848:  "Necessity of Party - The Press - The Locofoco Platform" - The American Whig Review  Volume 8, Issue 1, July 1848

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1848:  "The Nomination: General Taylor" - The American Whig Review / Volume 8, Issue 1, July 1848

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1848:  "The Peaceable Kingdom" - painting by Edward Hicks

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1848:  Present at the Beginning of the Gold Rush - Journalist Edward Gould Buffum Pans Gold in California

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1848:  “A Rush to the Gold Washings,” from the California Star

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1848:  "Calhoun's Speech against the Conquest of Mexico" - The American Whig Review / Volume 7, Issue , Mar 1848

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1848:  "The President and his Administration" - The American Whig Review / Volume 7, Issue 5, May 1848

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1848:  "To the West!" song lyrics

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1848:  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

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1848:  "The War: The New Issue" - The American Whig Review / Volume 7, Issue 2, Feb 1848

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1848:  "The Whigs and their Candidate" - The American Whig Review / Volume 8, Issue 3, Sept 1848

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1848:  William Porter's Oregon Trail Diary

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1849:  Adventures of an Overland Journey to California - Alonzo Delano

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1849:  "Californian Gold" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 24, Issue 127, January 1849

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1849:  The Constitution of the State of Deseret - the Mormons (7/18)

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1849:  "The Days of '49" - song about the CA Gold Rush (MP3 file)

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1849:  From the Diary of Alvin Coffey, African American 49er 

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1849:  Inaugural Address of Zachary Taylor

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1849:  Luzena Wilson's View of the Overland Trek

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1849:  Miner’s Ten Commandments  

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1849:  "We, the undersigned, citizens of the United States, being about to leave our homes for California, for the purpose of mining and digging gold ... have agreed to unite together and form an association" - broadside

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1850s:  "Paddy Works on the Erie" - song lyrics by John Renfro Davis

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1850:  California- A Trip Across the Plains - James Abbey

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1850:  Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

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1850:  New Railroad Mileage Charts (by region), 1850-1860

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1850:  Six Months in the Gold Mines - Edward Gould Buffum

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1850:  William Swain Letter written from "The Diggings" in California

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1851:  “Dame Shirley” Describes Life at a California Gold Mining Camp in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

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1852:  Democratic Party Platform          Whig Party Platform

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1852:  Harriet Scott Palmer on Crossing the Great Plains

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1852:  “This Muddy Place” - Mary Ballou, a Boardinghouse Keeper in the California Gold Rush

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1852:  Treaty with the Apache (7/1)

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1852:  “We Are Not the Degraded Race You Would Make Us” - Norman Asing Challenges Chinese Immigration Restrictions

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1852:  White and Chinese miners hoping to strike it rich during the California Gold Rush at Auburn Ravine (photo)

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1853:  Gadsden Purchase Treaty

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1853:  "The Monroe Doctrine versus The Clayton and Bulwer Treaty (an expose)" - The United States  Democratic Review / Volume 32, Issue 3, Mar 1853

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1853:  "Progress (The Advance of Civilization)" - a painting by Asher Brown Durand

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1854:  Chief Seattle, Oration

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1854:  Letter from Brigham Young to Thomas Kane

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1854:  Treaty of Washington, DC with the Kickapoo Indians (5/18)

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1855:  Female Life Among the Mormons - Maria Ward

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1855:  The Land of Gold:  Reality Versus Fiction - Hinton H. Helper  

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1856:  "Hiawatha" - a poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, illustrated by John Rea Neill

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1857:  The Discovery of Gold in California by Gen. John Sutter

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1856:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform          Whig Party Platform

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1857:  "The Miner's Song"

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1858:  "Abrogation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty - Central America, Mexico, and Cuba" - The United  States Democratic Review / Volume 42, Issue 6, December 1858

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1858:  "Democratic Policy - The Empire" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 42, Issue 5, November 1858

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1858:  "The Fate of the Tejanos" from Personal Memoirs of John N. Seguín

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1859:  Juan Nepomuceno Cortina, "Mexicans!"

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1860:  "The Cradle and Manner of Using It" - political cartoon about the Chinese and the Gold Rush Hutchings California Magazine

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1860:  An Overland Journey - Horace Greeley

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1872:  "American Progress" - painting by John Gast (about Manifest Destiny)

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1885:  Causes of the Mexican War - U. S. Grant (from his memoirs)

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1950:  Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth - Henry Nash Smith

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2000:  "1849" song lyrics by Mike Bliss of The Elders

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing