Primary Source Documents
bullet The 1864 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet 54th. Mass. Volunteer Infantry, Co. I
bullet Aboard the Underground Railroad
bullet The Abolitionist
bullet Abraham Lincoln in Political Cartoons (HarpWeek)
bullet Abraham Lincoln Online
bullet Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress
bullet Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library & Museum
bullet Abraham Lincoln - POTUS site
bullet Abraham Lincoln - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Abraham Lincoln's Assassination (LOC)
bullet Abraham Lincoln's Classroom - The Lincoln & Lehrman Institutes
bullet The African American Odyssey (Library of Congress)
bullet African Americans During the Civil War - photos
bullet Alfred Waud's History Page - Civil War Artist
bullet America's First Look into the Camera:  Daguerreotype Portraits and Views (1839-1864)
bullet America's Wars--The Civil War
bullet The American Civil War (Spartacus)
bullet The American Civil War: An Environmental View
bullet American Civil War Collections at the Electronic Text Center (Univ. of VA)
bullet -- many links
bullet American Civil War Manuscript Guides (Virginia Tech)
bullet American Civil War Music & Resources (LOC)
bullet The American Civil War Home Page (1)
bullet The American Civil War Home Page (2)
bullet American Sheet Music for the Nation:  1820-1860 (LOC)
bullet The Andersonville Trial
bullet Andrew Johnson - POTUS site
bullet Andrew Johnson - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Antietam National Battlefield
bullet Anti-Slavery and Civil War Ephemera
bullet Archaeology at Andersonville
bullet The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
bullet The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (The American Experience, PBS)
bullet The Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861
bullet The Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
bullet The Battle of Gettysburg (National Park Service)
bullet Beyond Face Value- Depictions of Slavery in Confederate Currency
bullet A Biography of America:  Civil War (1861-1863) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet Beyond Face Value: Depictions of Slavery in Confederate Currency
bullet Black Men in Navy Blue During the Civil War (National Archives)
bullet Black Soldiers in the Civil War (LOC)
bullet C. Godfrey Gunther (77th mayor of NYC during the Civil War)
bullet Calvin Shedd Letters - The Civil War in Florida
bullet Carnage at Antietam, 1862
bullet Carpetbaggers
bullet The Causes of the Civil War - many doc. links
bullet Celebrating Lincoln (MA Historical Society)
bullet Children in the Civil War - doc. links
bullet Chronology of the Secession Crisis
bullet Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism:  1830-end
bullet Civil Rights Movement (Spartacus)
bullet CivilWar@Smithsonian
bullet "The Civil War" (LOC)
bullet Civil
bullet - pictures of Civil War sites
bullet Civil War Archaeology
bullet Civil War Art
bullet The Civil War as Photographed by Mathew Brady
bullet Civil War - Brady Studio and Others - Photographs:  1861-1865 (LOC)
bullet Civil War Cartoons
bullet The Civil War Center
bullet Civil War Clip Art Gallery
bullet Civil War Cookbook
bullet Civil War Documents - links
bullet Civil War Graphs - Economic Comparisons Between North & South
bullet The Civil War (History Central)
bullet Civil War Interactive & Blue/Gray Daily - articles written by the staff
bullet Civil War Links
bullet Civil War Literature (HarpWeek)
bullet Civil War Love Letters
bullet Civil War Navies
bullet Civil War Newspapers
bullet Civil War in the West
bullet Civil War Photograph Album, ca. 1861-65 from the James Wadsworth Family Papers - over 200 photos
bullet Civil War Photographs:  The Mathew Brady Bunch (LOC)
bullet Civil War Preservation Trust - preserving Civil War battlefields
bullet Civil War Primary Sources - many links to a myriad of docs. (Civil War Trust)
bullet Civil War (Real History)
bullet Civil War Research at the Minnesota Historic Society
bullet Civil War Research Guide (Library of Virginia)
bullet Civil War Research National Archives)
bullet Civil War Richmond - many docs.
bullet A Civil War Soldier in the Wildcat Regiment [105th Regiment of PA Volunteers]: Selections from the Tilton C. Reynolds Papers (LOC)
bullet Civil War Soldiers' Stories - 8 different links to actual personal accounts (LOC)
bullet Civil War
bullet Civil War Treasures from the New York Historical Society (LOC)
bullet Civil War Virtual Museum - lots of authentic photos
bullet Civil War Women--Primary Sources on the Internet (Duke University)
bullet Civil War and Reconstruction WWW Resources
bullet Clara Barton's House:  Home of the American Red Cross
bullet Confederate Broadsides (Library of GA)
bullet Confederate Ships--CSS Patrick Henry
bullet The Confederate States of America Documents (Yale Avalon Project)
bullet Confederate States of America "Shrine" - a very pro-Southern view
bullet Cornelius C. Platter Civil War Diary, 1864 - 1865
bullet Crisis at Fort Sumter
bullet The Crisis of the Union - An Electronic Archive of Documents (Univ. of PA)
bullet The Death of Abraham Lincoln, 1865
bullet The Death of John Wilkes Booth, 1865
bullet Documenting the American South
bullet The Editorials on Secession Project (
bullet Essays and Articles about the American Civil War
bullet Eyewitness- The Civil War
bullet Female Civil War Soldiers and Spies
bullet Flags of the Confederacy
bullet Ford's Theatre - National Historic Site
bullet Forever Free:  Abraham Lincoln's Journey to Emancipation (ALA)
bullet The Gettysburg Address (LOC)
bullet Gettysburg National Military Park Site
bullet HarpWeek's Resource Guide for the 1864 election
bullet Harvard Regiment (20th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers)
bullet Hearts at Home:  Southern Women in the Civil War
bullet Henry Wirz Trial Home Page
bullet Historical Census Browser:  1860
bullet The History of Black Military Service:  Civil War
bullet History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 by James Ford Rhodes (1917)
bullet The History Place:  "Abraham Lincoln" (hyperlinked timeline)
bullet The History Place:  "The U. S. Civil War" (hyperlinked timeline)
bullet Indian Wars during the Civil War and Reconstruction
bullet Internet Modern History Sourcebook on the Civil War (Fordham Univ.)
bullet Jefferson Davis Chronology
bullet Jews in the Civil War
bullet The John and James Booker Civil War Letters
bullet John Wilkes Booth - FBI Freedom of Information Act original documents
bullet Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (LOC)
bullet Ken Burns' Civil War series (PBS) - classroom guides and materials
bullet Key Events and Battles of the Civil War
bullet The Lawrence Massacre
bullet Letters and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln
bullet Letters About the Civil War
bullet Letters of the Civil War
bullet Letters, Telegrams, and Photographs Illustrating Factors that Affected the Civil War (Natl. Archives)
bullet Life and the Civil War:  The Conflict over Slavery
bullet Life of Clara Barton

Life of a Union Soldier In the words of Elisha Hunt Rhodes

bullet Lincoln and the Outbreak of War, 1861- Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet Lincoln Enters Richmond, 1865
bullet The Lincoln Institute
bullet Lincoln's Secret Weapon- The Monitor (NOVA)
bullet Lincoln/Net - Historical Digitation Project
bullet Map-->"America in 1860--Black-and-White Outline Map"
bullet Map-->"Election of 1864" (by counties)
bullet Map-->"Slave Population in the South:  1860"
bullet Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Mary Chesnut- Diarist of the Confederacy
bullet Matthew Brady's Civil War photographs (LOC)
bullet Memoirs of General William T. Sherman
bullet Military Resources:  Civil War (National Archives)
bullet Mr. Lincoln and New York
bullet Mr. Lincoln's White House
bullet Museum of Southern History
bullet The Museum of the Confederacy
bullet Music of the Civil War
bullet National Museum of Civil War Medicine
bullet The [Historical] New York Times - The Civil War Years
bullet Newspapers of the Civil War - some from PA and VA
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet The North During the Civil War -- 7 documents from First-hand accounts of those who lived in the North during this period
bullet The Obsequies of Abraham Lincoln in the City of New York - published by the Common Council (1866)
bullet The Original Gettysburg Address as Written by Abraham Lincoln
bullet The Papers of Jefferson Davis - Rice University
bullet Party Nominating Conventions--Spring, 1860
bullet Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant's Civil War Experiences
bullet Pinkerton Detective Agency
bullet Poetry and Music of the War Between the States
bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) -- 1860    1864
bullet Presidential Papers of Abraham Lincoln Online (LOC)
bullet Religion in the Civil War: The Northern Side       Southern Perspective
bullet The Secession Commissioners (many docs.)
bullet Selected Civil War Letters from the Southern Historical Collection (University of NC)
bullet Selected Civil War Photographs from American Memory Project (LOC)
bullet Shotgun's "Home of the American Civil War"
bullet Slavery and the Origins of the Civil War by Eric Foner (PBS Online)
bullet Slavery in the United States (Spartacus)
bullet Sojourner Truth Speeches and Commentary
bullet Songs of the American Civil War
bullet Songs of the Civil War - Dennis Kennedy
bullet Southern Home Front- 1861-1865
bullet Southern Women in the Civil War
bullet The Story of a Confederate Boy in the Civil War - David E. Johnston (full text)
bullet Stratford Hall Plantation (Birthplace of Robert E. Lee)
bullet Surrender at Appomattox, 1865
bullet Time Line of the Civil War
bullet The Time of the Lincolns (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, Commandant of Andersonville Prison
bullet Under the Rebel Flag: Life in Texas During the Civil War (Texas State Library and Archives Commission)
bullet Ulysses S. Grant (The American Experience, PBS)
bullet The United States Civil War Center
bullet The Use of Black Troops in the Union Army
bullet U S Civil War Information - USA People Search
bullet Valley of the Shadow
bullet Virtual Visit: The Emancipation Proclamation
bullet War for Southern Independence (strong states' rights view of the Civil War)
bullet "We'll Sing to Abe Our Song!": Sheet Music about Lincoln, Emancipation, and the Civil War from the Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana
bullet Who Freed the Slaves?  How a War for Union Came a War for Freedom (American Social History Project) - many docs.
bullet William Francis Brand Civil War Letters (1857-1866)
bullet Women in the Civil War
bullet Women of the American Civil War
bullet The Women's Revolt in Rowan County, NY (1863)
bullet Women Soldiers of the Civil War (National Archives)

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1859:  "Dixie" - Confederate song (sound file) and lyrics
bullet 1859-98:  Sarah E. Thompson Papers (Union side)
bullet 1860-64:  Newspaper Opinions:  1     2
bullet 1860-64:  Rose O'Neal Greenhow Papers (Montgomery County, MD - confederate)
bullet 1860:  South Carolina Secession Declaration Debate (12/25/1860)
bullet 186?:  "The cost of a rebel peace. Plain words for working-men" - broadside
bullet 186?:  A prayer for the southern cause
bullet 186?:  "What a real patriot thought of the 'Peace party'" - broadside
bullet 186?:  "We've a million in the field" - song lyrics written and composed by Stephen C. Foster - broadside
bullet 1860:  Republican Party platform of 1860
bullet 1861:  Abolitionist Newspaper Slams South on Eve of Civil War (4/12)
bullet 1861:  Act Abolishing Slavery in the District of Columbia (4/16)
bullet 1861:  Address by Jefferson Davis to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America in Montgomery, Alabama (4/29)
bullet 1861:  Anaconda Plan - General Winfield Scott's letter to General George McClellan
bullet 1861:  An Act Relative to Prisoners of War - passed by the Confederate States of America (5/21)
bullet 1861:  "Annual address of the Massachusetts temperance alliance to the people of the Commonwealth ... Boston" - broadside
bullet 1861:  "An appeal for peace sent to Lieut. Gen. Scott, July 4, 1861 ... Women of Maryland" - broadside
bullet 1861:  Anti-Secession Resolutions of the New York State Legislature (passed by the NY Assembly, 1/11)
bullet 1861:  "Army Slave Catching" - Chicago Tribune (5/28)
bullet 1861:  Attack upon ‘Star of the West’–Actual First Shot of the Civil War Macon Telegraph (1/10)
bullet 1861:  "The Battle of Manassas" - song lyrics by Susan Archer Talley
bullet 1861:  "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" - sonly lyrics by Julia Ward Howe
bullet 1861:  "Beat!  Beat!  Drums! - poem about the Battle of Bull Run by Walt Whitman
bullet 1861:  "The Border States must Unite and Act!" - North Carolina Weekly Standard  (4/24)
bullet 1861:  Constitution of the Confederate States of America
bullet 1861:  "Cornerstone Speech" - Alexander H. Stevens, Savannah GA (3/21)
bullet 1861:  DeBow's Review on the attitudes of non-slaveholders (Jan.)
bullet 1861:  Draft of Abraham Lincoln's instructions to Maj. Robert Anderson in command at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC (4/4)
bullet 1861:  Dramatic Newspaper Coverage of the Battle of Fort Sumter (4/12)
bullet 1861:  Ex Parte Merryman - R. B. Taney, Chief Justice
bullet 1861:  "Fear of Insurrection" - Harriet Ann Jacobs (chapter 12 of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl)
bullet 1861:  First Confiscation Act (8/6)
bullet 1861:  First Inaugural Address of Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1861:  "Fort Sumter Surrenders Ending Opening Battle of the Civil War" - New York Herald (4/14)
bullet 1861:  Fragment on the Constitution and Union - Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1861:  Georgia Declaration of Secession (1/19)
bullet 1861:  "The Germans in Charleston Are Unhappy with Secession" - Milwaukee Sentinel (4/1)
bullet 1861:  Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl - Harriet Jacobs
bullet 1861:  Inaugural Address of Jefferson Davis (2/18)
bullet 1861:  "Is Peaceable Secession Out of the Question?" - New York Daily News [Breckenridge], 6/12
bullet 1861:  James Henley Thornwell on "the State of the Country"
bullet 1861:  Jefferson Davis's Farewell Speech to the U. S. Senate
bullet 1861:  Jefferson Davis's First Speech to the Confederate Congress (4/29)
bullet 1861:  "Jeff Davis going to war and Jeff returning from war" - political cartoon
bullet 1861:  Jefferson Davis's Inaugural Address
bullet 1861:  "Jefferson Davis Invites Privateers to Aid the Confederacy" (4/17)
bullet 1861:  John C. Fremont Order of Martial Law Throughout Missouri (8/30)
bullet 1861:  "Kansas Statehood Marked by Violence" - Augusta Chronicle (Georgia) in its Jan. 29 editorial
bullet 1861:  Letter by James R. Kelly describing camp life
bullet 1861:  Letter by Jefferson Davis Invites Privateers to Aid the Confederacy
bullet 1861:  Letter by John Jay on the fate of slave power
bullet 1861:  Letter from Charleston Six Days before Fort Sumter Attack - Philadelphia Inquirer (4/15)
bullet 1861:  Letter from a Southern Lady In Prison to Secretary Seward - Rose O'Neal Greenhow
bullet 1861:  Letter Home- Connecticut Yankee Describes Daily Life in Civil War Camp - Hartford Daily Courant (5/17)
bullet 1861:  Letter to J. J. Crittenden from William Oland Bourne (2/22) - Do We Have a Government?
bullet 1861:  "Lincoln and the Outbreak of War" - various documents      (additional documents)
bullet 1861:  Mary Boykin Chesnut, A Confederate Lady's Diary
bullet 1861:  Mayor Wood’s Recommendation of the Secession of New York Citt (1/6)
bullet 1861:  Newspaper Prints Confederate Telegrams Leading to Fort Sumter Attack - Philadelphia Inquirer (4/13)
bullet 1861:  "Northern Women Rally to Lincoln’s Call" - Lowell Daily Citizen and News of Lowell, MA (4/29)
bullet 1861:  "Peace or War" - The Pittsburgh Post [Douglas], 3/18
bullet 1861:  President Abraham Lincoln Calls in the Troops
bullet 1861:  Proposals of the Washington Peace Conference
bullet 1861:  "Pro-Southern Mob in Baltimore Riots, Attacks Union Troops" - Baltimore Sun (4/19)
bullet 1861:  "The Question of the Day" - Philadelphia, PA, Public Ledger (1/1)
bullet 1861:  "The Question of Force" - Harrisburg, PA, Daily Patriot and Union [Breckenridge], (1/4)
bullet 1861:  "The Question of the Hour," by James Russell Lowell in The Atlantic Monthly (VII)
bullet 1861:  Reflections on the Causes of the Civil War - letter by London Times correspondent, David Hopkins
bullet 1861:  The Resignation of Robert E. Lee (4/20)
bullet 1861:  Revolutionary War Veteran Laments Secession of South Carolina (3/1)
bullet 1861:  Richmond Daily Enquirer editorial of 7/4
bullet 1861:  "Scientific Racism" - J. H. Van Evrie
bullet 1861:  A Southern Christian View of Slavery - James Henry Thornwell (From The Annals of America: 1858-1865, The Crisis of the Union)
bullet 1861:  "The Southern Confederacy - What Secession Means" - From The Harrisburg (Pa.) Telegraph (2/23)
bullet 1861:  Speech of the Hon. Alexander H. Stephens to the Virginia Secession Convention (4/23)
bullet 1861:  "The State of the Country" - James Henley Thornwell
bullet 1861:  Sullivan Ballou's Letter to his Wife Sarah before the Battle of Bull Run (Major-2nd Regiment, RI Volunteers)
bullet 1861:  Telegram announcing the surrender of Ft. Sumter (4/10)
bullet 1861:  "Tennessee Secedes - Last to Join the Confederacy" - Daily National Intelligencer of Washington, DC (6/8)
bullet 1861:  The Texas Ordinance of Secession (2/2)
bullet 1861:  Unratified Slavery  Amendment to the U. S. Constitution (in the middle of the page)
bullet 1861:  Various Documents on Lincoln and the Outbreak of the Civil War
bullet 1861:  Virginia Gov. John Letcher's Conditions for Settlement
bullet 1861:  Virginia Leaves the Union
bullet 1861:  A Voice from Harper's Ferry - excerpts from Osborne P. Anderson
bullet 1861:  "Wall Street Despairs as Civil War Approaches" - Daily Picayune, New Orleans (4/9)
bullet 1861:  "War Begins!" - NY and SC newspaper accounts of the outbreak of war
bullet 1861:  The Washington Peace Conference (2/8-2/27)
bullet 1861:  "Washington, D.C., Prepares for War after Fall of Fort Sumter" - Public Ledger of Philadelphia (4/15)
bullet 1861?:  "Who endorsed the Helper book! Who were the inciters to bloodshed? 'The unconditional abolition of slavery', 'Peaceably, if we can; violently, if we must.' Read? Read? Read" - broadside
bullet 1861-62:  From the Diary of a Young Northern Woman
bullet 1861-63: A Michigan Civil War Physician's Diary Entry Samples - Dr. Cyrus Bacon
bullet 1861-65:  Wartime Diary and Letters of Senator James Henry Hammond of South Carolina
bullet 1862:  An Act to Make Disposition of Negro Slaves Captured from Hostile Indians - Congress of the Confederate States of America (2/17)
bullet 1862:  "American Civilization" - Ralph Waldo Emerson in The Atlantic Monthly (April)
bullet 1862:  An Anonymous Poet Satirizes "Exempts
bullet 1862:  "Are We Whipped? Must We Give Up?" - Letter to the Editor of the Atlanta Southern Confederacy (10/30)
bullet 1862:  Battle of Shiloh described in a letter by Edgar Pierce
bullet 1862:  "The Causes of the Rebellion" - Continental Monthly / Volume 2, Issue 5, November 1862 / Issue 6 December
bullet 1862:  "Chiefly About War Matters" - Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Atlantic Monthly
bullet 1862:  Confederate Conscription Act
bullet 1862:  Confederate Enlistment Poster
bullet 1862:  "'The Constitution as It Is - The Union as It Was'." - Continental Monthly / Volume 2, Issue 4, October 1862]
bullet 1862:  District of Columbia Emancipation Act (4/16)
bullet 1862:  Draft Petition for Alexander Schecke, Texas (4/2) in response to the First Confederate Conscription Act
bullet 1862+:  "Education among the freedmen ... To the friends of education among the freedmen" - broadside
bullet 1862:  "The Election and the War" - New York Times editorial (11/5)
bullet 1862:  Emancipation and Its Results Is Ohio to be Africanized? - Samuel S. Cox, Congressman from Ohio (6/3)
bullet 1862:  "The Emancipation Problem in Maryland" - circular (6/17)
bullet 1862:  The Emancipation Proclamation - Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1862:  “The Evil Shadow of Slavery No Longer Hangs Over Them” - Charlotte Forten Describes Her Experiences Teaching on the SC Sea Islands
bullet 1862:  An Exhortation Delivered by Eliza P. Gurney (a Quaker) to Abraham Lincoln at the White House
bullet 1862:  Former Slave Elizabeth Keckley and the “Contraband” of Washington, DC
bullet 1862:  "The Freed Men of the South" - Continental Monthly / Volume 2, Issue 6, December 1862]
bullet 1862:  From the Diary of a Young Southern Woman
bullet 1862:  General Orders, No. 28, New Orleans - issued by General Pierre G. T. Beauregard
bullet 1862:  Harper's Weekly Editorial on Emancipation (10/4)
bullet 1862:  Homestead Act
bullet 1862:  "Humane and Generous Enemy" - letter from Confederate General Robert E. Lee to Col. William R. Lee (7/19)
bullet 1862:  Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in yhe Field (The Lieber Articles)
bullet 1862:  John Wilkes Booth - photo by Charles DeForest Fredericks
bullet 1862:  Letter by Mansfield Lovell commenting on the Emancipation Proclamation
bullet 1862:  Letter from Mary Todd Lincoln to Abraham Lincoln advising her husband to remove the hesitant Gen. George B. McClellan from command (11/2)
bullet 1862:  Letter from President Lincoln to Horace Greeley (8/22)
bullet 1862:  Letter to the Secretary of War from President Lincoln (8/18)
bullet 1862:  Letter to William Tecumseh Sherman - John Sherman (8/24)
bullet 1862:  Mary Phinney Recalls her Experiences of August 1862 (army nurse)
bullet 1862:  Maryland Fugitive Slave to His Wife (1/12)
bullet 1862:  McClellan's Letter to President Lincoln (7/7)
bullet 1862:  Militia Act (7/17)
bullet 1862:  Morrill Land Grant College Act
bullet 1862:  "The Negroes and the Poor" - Atlanta Southern Confederacy editorial (10/30)
bullet 1862:  The Original Gettysburg Address as Written by Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1862:  Pacific Railway Act (7/1)
bullet 1862:  Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
bullet 1862:  President Lincoln to General McClellan (4/9) - broadside letter
bullet 1862:  "The President's Proclamation" - by Ralph Waldo Emerson in Atlantic Monthly (Nov.)
bullet 1862:  Proclamation by the President (5/19)
bullet 1862:  Professor John Elliott Cairnes on Slave Power
bullet 1862:  "Rally for the Union!" - broadside (7/23)
bullet 1862:  Resolution on Compensated Emancipation (4/10)
bullet 1862:  Second Confiscation Act (7/17)
bullet 1862:  Second Inaugural Address of Jefferson Davis (2/22)
bullet 1862:  The Slave Power:  Its Character, Career, and Probable Designs- Being an Attempt to Explain the Real Issues Involved in the American Contest - John Elliott Cairnes
bullet 1862:  "Southern Rights" - Continental Monthly: / Volume 2, Issue 2, August 1862]
bullet 1862:  Speech by Jefferson Davis at Jackson, MS (12/26)
bullet 1862:  "The Stars and Stripes" - Union song lyrics - printed in the Baltimore America (4/23)
bullet 1862:  "State Rights" - Continental Monthly / Volume 1, Issue 5, May 1862
bullet 1862:  Treaty between United States and Great Britain for the Suppression of the Slave Trade (4/7)
bullet 1862:  The Twenty Negro Law (10/11)
bullet 1862:  "What to Do with the Darkies. A New and Original Plan for Saving the Union on Southern Principles." - Continental Monthly / Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1862
bullet 1862-63:  Letters written by Newton Scott, an Iowa soldier in the Civil War
bullet 1862-64:  Susie King Taylor Assists the First South Carolina Volunteers
bullet 1862-65:  Comparative Troop Strength, North and South - chart
bullet 1863:  Abraham Lincoln's Order of Retaliation (7/30)
bullet 1863:  Additional Article to the Treaty for the Suppression of the African Slave Trade (2/17)
bullet 1863:  "Avoid the draft! ... All men who desire to join any particular regiment of cavalry now in the field, are hereby authorized to present themselves at any time during the next thirty days ... James B. Fry Provost Marshal General" (6/2) - broadside     (image)
bullet 1863:  "Beecher Blasphemy and Negro Patriotism" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 2, Feb 1863
bullet 1863:  The Bible against slavery, with replies to the "Bible view of slavery," by John H. Hopkins, D. D., bishop of the diocese of Vermont; & to "A northern presbyter's second letter to ministers of the gospel," by Nathan Lord, late president of Dartmouth
bullet 1863?:  "The Black Regiment" - song lyrics published by the Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments
bullet 1863:  "Boston Hymn" - poem by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1/1)
bullet 1863:  "A challenge! The rebellion of the southern traitors against the Union and the government, is a rebellion against the democratic rights of the people ... [Signed] A Democratic workingman" - NY, 8/25
bullet 1863:  Casuality Reports of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment
bullet 1863:  "To Colored Men, 54th Regiment! Massachusetts Volunteers, Of African Descent..." - broadside
bullet 1863:  A Confederate Assessment of the War - letter by Christian M. Epperly
bullet 1863:  A Confederate Assessment of the War - letter by Daniel H. Hill
bullet 1863:  "The Confederation and the Nation" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 6, June 1863
bullet 1863:  "The Consequences of the Rebellion" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 1 January 1863
bullet 1863:  "The Cost of War and Who Must Pay It" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 1, Jan 1863
bullet 1863:  "Dan'l O'Connell ---on--- democracy! ... Irishmen and workingmen! Give your votes in behalf of freedom and not in behalf of slavery'. A Democratic workingman. New York, Oct. 13th" - broadside
bullet 1863:  "The Delusion of the Abolitionists - A Letter to Rev. Henry Ward Beecher" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 6, June 1863
bullet 1863:  Democratic Catechism of Negro Equality - broadside
bullet 1863:  Edward King to Abraham Lincoln (Plan for colonization)
bullet 1863:  "Emancipation Hymn" - song and lyrics by Manuel Fenollosa
bullet 1863:  Emancipation Proclamation          (image of original text)
bullet 1863:  Emancipation Proclamation printed by Rufus Blanchard
bullet 1863:  "The Fate of Black Troops in Confederate Prisons" -  from the Franklin Repository Chambersbug, PA (12/30)
bullet 1863:  "The Freedom of the Press" - Continental monthly / Volume 4, Issue 4, October 1863
bullet 1863:  General Orders Number 73 - General Robert E. Lee
bullet 1863:  General Order Number 143 - creation of the U. S. Colored Troops (5/22)
bullet 1863:  General "Stonewall" Jackson - photo by Mathew Brady
bullet 1863:  Gettysburg Address (11/19)
bullet 1863:  "Gettysburg Oration" - Edward Everett - the speech given before Lincoln's (11/19)
bullet 1863:  Habeas Corpus Act
bullet 1863:  Harriet Beecher Stowe's description of Sojourner Truth ("The Libyan Sybil") in The Atlantic Monthly (April issue)
bullet 1863:  "How the War Affects Americans" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 4, April 1863
bullet 1863:  “I Hope to Fall With My Face to the Foe” - Lewis Douglass Describes the Battle of Fort Wagner
bullet 1863:  “If It Were Not For My Trust in Christ I Do Not Know How I Could Have Endured It” - Testimony from Victims of New York’s Draft Riots (July)
bullet 1863:  "In Support of a Tax-in-Kind" - Richmond Examiner editorial (4/3)
bullet 1863:  Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field - General Orders 100 - prepared by Francis Lieber
bullet 1863:  The Lawrence Massacre by a Band of MO Ruffians under Quantrell (8/21)
bullet 1863:  Letter by Amos Lewis commenting on the Emancipation Proclamation
bullet 1863:  Letter by Joseph Maitland on the issue of racism
bullet 1863:  Letter by William Tecumseh Sherman on slaveholders and the Civil War
bullet 1863:  "Lincoln's 150,000 Negro Soldiers" - from the Valley Spirit, Chambersbug, PA (2/17)
bullet 1863:  Major General George Meade's Account of the Battle of Gettysburg
bullet 1863:  Marriage Certificate of a Black Soldier and His Wife (12/3) - Virginia
bullet 1863:  "The Mob in New York," New York Times, v. 12 (7/15)
bullet 1863:  Mother of a Northern Black Soldier to the President (7/31)
bullet 1863:  “My children are Just Tied Down Here” - Washington Spradling Discusses the Condition of Free Blacks in the South
bullet 1863:  National Banking System - letter by Samuel P. Chase
bullet 1863:  New York City Draft Riots - Martha Derby Perry, Eyewitness Recollections (July)
bullet 1863:  "Nullification and Secession" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 2, February 1863
bullet 1863:  On the War and Its Conduct - Clement Vallandigham, Congressman from Ohio (1/4)
bullet 1863:  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
bullet 1863:  "Proposition to the president to employ the emancipated negroes at Port Royal ... Springfield, VT" - broadside
bullet 1863:  "Reconstruction" - Continental monthly / Volume 4, Issue 6, December 1863
bullet 1863:  Recruitment of African-American soldiers - letter by Benjamin F. Butler
bullet 1863:  Relations between Indians and missionaries - letter by George Bonga
bullet 1863:  Remarks on Bishop Hopkins' letter on the Bible view of slavery
bullet 1863:  Reminiscences of the Civil War - Confederate General John B. Gordon's memoirs
bullet 1863:  Resolutions and Debate, Woman's National Loyal League Meeting, New York City - Susan B. Anthony(5/14)
bullet 1863:  Review of Bishop Hopkins' Bible view of slavery, by a presbyter of the church in Philadelphia
bullet 1863:  "The Right and the Wrong of Secession" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 3, Mar 1863
bullet 1863:  "The Riots in New York City" - pictures in Harper's Weekly (8/1)
bullet 1863:  Robert E. Lee's Account of the Battle of Gettysburg
bullet 1863:  Rose O'Neal Greenhow- Excerpt from Diary of a Confederate Spy
bullet 1863:  Slave Treatment (photo)
bullet 1863:  "The Slavery Status of the North" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 10, Oct-Dec 1863
bullet 1863:  "Sojourner Truth, The Libyan Sibyl" - Harriet Beecher Stowe in The Atlantic Monthly 11 (April 1863): 473-481
bullet 1863:  A Soldier's View of Lincoln - letter by a soldier from the 12th Vermont militia
bullet 1863:  "The South" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 10, Oct-Dec 1863
bullet 1863:  "Southern and Northern Nations" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 10, Oct-Dec 1863
bullet 1863:  "Southern slavery and the Christian religion" - broadside
bullet 1863:  "Stamp duties imposed by the act of Congress of July 1, 1862 and its amendment of March 3, 1863" - broadside
bullet 1863:  "State Sovereignty" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 7, July 1863
bullet 1863:  Testimony by a South Carolina Freedman before the American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission, June
bullet 1863:  Testimony by the Superintendent of Contrabands at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, before American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission (5/9)
bullet 1863:  Thanksgiving Proclamation - Abraham Lincoln - set the precedent to make it a national holiday
bullet 1863:  "A Traitor Congress and a Traitor President" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 1, Jan 1863
bullet 1863:  "Trial by Commissions" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 1, Jan 1863
bullet 1863:  "Two-Headed Rebellion" - The Old Guard / Volume 1, Issue 8, Aug 1863
bullet 1863:  "Two Southern Mothers" - a poem in Continental Monthly / Volume 4, Issue 5, November 1863
bullet 1863:  "The Union" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 1, January 1863
bullet 1863:  "The Value of the Union" - Continental Monthly / Volume 3, Issue 5, May 1863
bullet 1863:  “We Feel as Though Our Country Spurned Us” - Soldier James Henry Gooding Protests Unequal Pay for Black Soldiers
bullet 1863:  "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" - song (sound file) and lyrics
bullet 1863:  "White slaves. It is of the greatest importance to the workingmen of the United States to understand the true sentiments and objects of the leading traitors of the South ... [Signed] A democratic workingman. NY, Sept. 28th 1863" - broadside
bullet 1863-64:  Illustrations of the United States Colored Troops - Harper's Weekly
bullet 1864:  "Abe Lincoln's Battle Cry" - song lyrics by James D. Gay
bullet 1864:  Alice Williamson's whole diary (without images, to make it easier to print). Includes historical annotations
bullet 1864:  "American Women" - Continental Monthly / Volume 6, Issue 4, October 1864
bullet 1864:  "Automaton Negro Dancer" - advertisement
bullet 1864:  "Banking and the currency. Letter from James Gallatin, Esq., to the bank committee", New York (4/7) - broadside
bullet 1864:  The Breakdown of the Plantation System - letter by Tobias Gibson
bullet 1864:  "The Capture of Fort Pillow" - from the Franklin Repository, Chambersbug, PA
bullet 1864:  Celebration of the Abolition of Negro Slavery in Maryland - Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (11/19)
bullet 1864:  Comments on the 1864 Election - letter by Andrew Knox, a Union Lieutenant, to his wife
bullet 1864:  Confederate Attitudes - letter by John McKinley Gibson
bullet 1864:  "The Constitutional Amendment" - Continental Monthly / Volume 6, Issue 3, September 1864
bullet 1864:  Copperhead Democrats. A political cartoon lampooning their subservience to the Confederacy
bullet 1864:  "Cotton vs. currency. Ought the cotton trade to be opened?" - broadside
bullet 1864:  Criticizing the Union Army Occupation - letter by Tobias Gibson
bullet 1864:  "The Conscription Act of March 3d, 1864" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 1, January 1864
bullet 1864:  Democratic Party Platform
bullet 1864:  General John B. Hood's General Field Order No. 14 (8/12)
bullet 1864:  George McClellan campaign poster
bullet 1864:  Impressment of Slaves: Seddon to Davis (11/28)
bullet 1864:  "James Fennimore Cooper on Secession and State Rights" - Continental Monthly / Volume 6, Issue 1, July 1864
bullet 1864:  Letter from Abraham Lincoln to Charles Sumner outlining the president's belief that the dependents of black and white soldiers should be treated equally (5/19)
bullet 1864:  Letter from Abraham Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby concerning the loss of her sons in the Civil War (11/21) - a much debated letter as to its authenticity as being written by Lincoln
bullet 1864:  Letter from General Meade to L. Montgomery Bond (4/8)
bullet 1864:  Letter from Horace Greeley to Abraham Lincoln (7/7)
bullet 1864:  Letter to the Editor of the Anglo-African - Rev. James Lynch
bullet 1864:  Letter to Joseph Johnston on Training Slaves to Fight for the Confederacy (1/2)
bullet 1864:  Lincoln and his Son Tad - photo by Mathew Brady
bullet 1864:  Lincoln Campaign Poster
bullet 1864:  Marching Song for the First Arkansas Volunteers
bullet 1864:  Maryland Slave to the President (8/25)
bullet 1864:  Missouri Black Soldier to His Enslaved Daughters, and to the Owner of One of His Daughters (9/3)
bullet 1864:  National Bank Act (6/3)
bullet 1864:  "Our Domestic Relations; or, How to Treat the Rebel States" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 5, May 1864
bullet 1864:  "Our Government and the Blacks" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 4, April 1864
bullet 1864:  "Pay of Colored Troops" - memorandum from Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson
bullet 1864:  "Peace Coming Through Bankruptcy" - The Old Guard / Volume 2, Issue 2, Feb 1864
bullet 1864:  Plantation Regulations by a U.S. Treasury Agent, February
bullet 1864:  Proclamation on Reconstruction - President Lincoln (7/8)
bullet 1864:  "The Progress of Liberty in the United States" - Continental Monthly / Volume 6, Issue 5, November 1864
bullet 1864:  Regular Democratic Ticket. Ward 8, Boston - broadside
bullet 1864:  Report of the Board of Education for Freedmen
bullet 1864:  Republican Party Platform
bullet 1864:  "Slavery and the next President" - broadside
bullet 1864:  Special Field Orders, No. 120 - General William T. Sherman
bullet 1864:  "Startling revelations from the Department of South Carolina, and expose of the so called National Freedmen's Relief Association" - Thomas P. Knox, late contract surgeon in U.S. Army
bullet 1864:  A Stillborn Plan for Confederate Emancipation - letter to Joseph E. Johnston from Patrick R. Cleburne
bullet 1864:  "To all Marylanders in the Confederate States" - George P. Kane - circular
bullet 1864:  "The two roads to peace! How shall we end the rebellion - shall we coax it, or crush it? ... The Chicago platform .... The Baltimore platform .... Published by the National Union Executive Committee, Astor House, New York" - broadside
bullet 1864:  Ulysses S. Grant at Cold Harbor, VA - photo by Mathew Brady
bullet 1864:  Ulysses S. Grant's commission as lieutenant general signed by Abraham Lincoln (3/10)
bullet 1864:  "Union Not to be Maintained by Force" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 1, January 1864
bullet 1864:  U. S. Sanitary Commission Sketch of Its Purpose
bullet 1864:  Wade-Davis Manifesto (8/4)
bullet 1864:  "The War a Contest for Ideas" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 5, May 1864
bullet 1864:  "We Prefer the War" - Richmond Examiner editorial
bullet 1864:  "What Jeff Davis thinks of the war. Published by the National Union executive committee" - broadside
bullet 1864-65:  General William Tecumseh Sherman - photo by Mathew Brady
bullet 1865:  Joseph Trimble's Oath of Amnesty
bullet 1865:  "'Abolition of Slavery' Forever Impossible" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 4, Apr 1865
bullet 1865:  An Act to increase the military force of the Confederate States
bullet 1865:  Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Virginia, to the People of the United States
bullet 1865:  Address of the Colored State Convention to the People of the State of South Carolina
bullet 1865:  Amnesty Proclamation - Andrew Johnson (5/29)
bullet 1865:  Articles of Agreement Relating to the Surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia - Generals Lee and Grant (4/9)
bullet 1865:  The Assassination of President Lincoln - letter by J. B. Stonehouse
bullet 1865:  The Assassination of President Lincoln - letter by W. Henry Pearce
bullet 1865:  A Bill to Provide for Raising Two Hundred Thousand Negro Troops [Senate Bill 190] - Confederate States of America (2/10)
bullet 1865:  "Black republican and office-holders journal. No. 5. for the elevation of negroes, gorillas, and ourang-outangs" - leaflet
bullet 1865?:  "The Conquered Banner" - song lyrics by Abram J. Ryan
bullet 1865:  Contract for indenture of Susan, a girl of five years (8/19) - anonymous
bullet 1865:  "Farewell to the Army of Southern Virginia - speech by General Robert E. Lee
bullet 1865:  “A Jubilee of Freedom” - Freed Slaves March in Charleston, South Carolina, March
bullet 1865:  Freedman's Bureau Act of 1865 (3/3)
bullet 1865:  General Lees Letter on Slaves as Soldiers
bullet 1865:  General Orders 9 - Robert E. Lee
bullet 1865:  General Robert E. Lee - photo by Mathew Brady
bullet 1865:  "The Governing Passion of My Soul" - speech given by William Lloyd Garrison at Charleston, South Carolina, only a month after Sherman's march through the state and five days after Lee had surrendered at Appomattox (4/14)
bullet 1865:  "Good 'Ole Rebel!" - song (sound file) with lyrics
bullet 1865:  Grant's Surrender Terms At Appomatox
bullet 1865:  "Grasp of War" Speech by Richard Henry Dana, Jr. - Delivered at a meeting held in Faneuil Hall in Boston, Massachusetts (6/21)
bullet 1865:  The Human Cost of War - chart
bullet 1865:  "Jeffie Davis the Belle of Richmond" - New York, The American News Company - broadside
bullet 1865:  "Lancaster (Pa.) Speech" - Thaddeus Stevens (9/6)
bullet 1865:  Lee's Farewell to his Army     1883  broadside
bullet 1865:  Letter of a Northern Teacher to the Freedman's Bureau Commissioner (8/4)
bullet 1865:  Letter to Andrew Hunter on Employing Negro Troops - Robert E. Lee (1/11)
bullet 1865:  A Letter from Robert E. Lee to Jefferson Davis (4/20)
bullet 1865:  Letter to John Bright from Charles Sumner (3/13)
bullet 1865:  Lincoln's Last Public Address - which prompted John Wilkes Booth to assassinate him (4/11)
bullet 1865:  Louisiana Black Codes
bullet 1865:  Meeting between Black Religious Leaders and Union Military Authorities (1/12)
bullet 1865:  Meetings with Robert E. Lee - Ulysses S. Grant (4/9 & 4/10)
bullet 1865:  North Carolina Black Soldiers to the Freedmen's Bureau Commissioner
bullet 1865:  Police Blotter Report on the Assassination of President Lincoln (4/14)
bullet 1865:  Reactions to Emancipation in Virginia
bullet 1865:  A Republican View of Andrew Johnson - letter by Mary Y. Prentiss
bullet 1865:  "Sad news'. the president assassinated! War department, Washington, April 15, 1 A. M. ... The President dead! ... Abraham Lincoln died this morning at twenty-two minutes after seven o'clock ... - They will appear in this evening's Record" - broadside
bullet 1865:  Salmon P. Chase letter to Lincoln on Reconstruction (4/11)
bullet 1865:  Second Inaugural Address of Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1865:  "Slaveholding Reconstructionists" - Richmond Enquirer editorial (1/28)
bullet 1865:  Special Field Orders No. 15 - General William T. Sherman (11/16)
bullet 1865:  Speech of Thaddeus Stevens (12/18)
bullet 1865:  “There Was Never Any Pay-day For the Negroes” - Jourdon Anderson Demands Wages
bullet 1865:  Total War - letter by A. R. Lord (Union Army)
bullet 1865:  A Union soldier's letter to his parents
bullet 1865:  "Vol. I. Pictorial history of the cause of the great rebellion. Witchcraft. These pictures are intended to show that modern spiritualism of A. D. 1865 ... was described and practised thousands of years since under the names of witchcraft" - broadside (3 pages)
bullet 1865:  "We Want No Confederacy without Slavery" - Charleston Mercury
bullet 1865:  "What the Black Man Wants" - speech by Frederick Douglass at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston (April)
bullet 1865:  White House Funeral Sermon for President Lincoln - Dr. Phineas D. Gurley (4/19)
bullet 1866:  Ex Parte Milligan
bullet 1866:  Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End
bullet 1870:  Thomas Wentworth Higginson Assesses the Black Soldier
bullet 1887:  Letter on Harper's Ferry by Annie Brown Adams
bullet 1889:  At Gettysburg:  What a Girl Saw and Heard of the Battle - Tillie (Pierce) Alleman
bullet 1891:  Elizabeth A. Tuttle's Certificate of Honorable Discharge, Army of the Potomac (9/19)
bullet 1891:  A Union Officer’s Account of the 1864 Election - J.N. Jones
bullet 1895:  Red Badge of Courage - Stephen Crane (full text)
bullet 1905:  A Diary from Dixie - Mary Boykin Chestnut
bullet 1910:  "A Ballad of Major Anderson" - song lyrics by Mrs. J. C. R. Dorr. N. Y. Evening Post
bullet 1916:  Reminiscences of the Civil War - Cora Mitchell
bullet 1963: The Political Economy of Slavery - Edmund Ruffin

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing