Primary Source Documents
bullet The 1868 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1872 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1876 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1876 Presidential Campaign - Hayes vs. Tilden
bullet The African American Odyssey (Library of Congress)
bullet African-American Leaders during Reconstruction (The History Channel)
bullet African American Perspectives  - Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection (1818-1907)
bullet African-American Sheet Music:  1850-1920 (LOC)
bullet African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
bullet After Slavery:  Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Emancipation Carolinas
bullet American The Black Codes of 1865-1866
bullet America's Reconstruction--People and Politics After the Civil War
bullet Andrew Johnson - POTUS site
bullet Andrew Johnson - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet A Biography of America:  America at the Centennial (1876) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet A Biography of America:  Reconstruction (1863-1875) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet Black Populism in the New South
bullet "The Booker T. Washington Era" (LOC)
bullet Center for the Study of Southern Culture (Ole Miss)
bullet Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism:  1830-end
bullet The Church in the Southern Black Community:  1780-1925 (LOC)
bullet Civil Rights Movement (Spartacus)
bullet Civil Unrest in Camilla, Georgia, 1868 Collection
bullet The Colfax Massacre (1873)
bullet Cotton States and the International Exposition in Atlanta-1895
bullet The Crime of 1873
bullet The Diary and Letters of President Rutherford B. Hayes
bullet Documenting the American South - Univ. of NC, Chapel Hill
bullet Dr. Toer's Amazing Magic Lantern Show -- A Different View of Emancipation
bullet Fabric of Life in a Southern Mill Town
bullet Finding Precedent: Hayes v. Tilden: The Electoral College Controversy of 1876-1877 (Harper's Weekly)
bullet First-Person Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 (LOC)
bullet The Frederick Douglass Papers at the Library of Congress
bullet Freedmen and Southern Society Project
bullet The Freedmen's Bureau Online
bullet Freedmen's Labor Contracts
bullet From Slavery to Freedom:  The African-American Pamphlet Collection (1824-1909) - LOC
bullet History of the Colored Farmers Alliance
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1860        1870
bullet The History of Jim Crow
bullet How Successful was Reconstruction?
bullet "A Hundred Years of Terror" - report by The Southern Poverty Law Center (AL)
bullet Ida B. Wells-Barnett - Paper 1    Paper 2
bullet "Ida B. Wells: Crusade for Justice" - essay by Jennifer McBride
bullet The Impeachment Trial of President Andrew Johnson
bullet The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson - Harper's Weekly
bullet "Immigration and the South" - Atlantic Monthly (11/1905)
bullet The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Simulation (HarpWeek) - many documents
bullet Indian Wars during the Civil War and Reconstruction
bullet Introduction to the Jim Crow South
bullet The Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia
bullet Jackson Davis Collection of African-American Educational Photographs
bullet Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia (Ferris State Univ., MI)
bullet Johnson's Trial: 2 Bitter Months for a Still-Torn Nation - NY Times (1/7/99)
bullet Ku Klux Klan Hearings Simulation (HarpWeek) - many documents
bullet Like A Family:  The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World
bullet Lucy Ware Webb Hayes
bullet Lynching in American (eHistory) - many documents
bullet Lynching in the United States
bullet Lynching in America: Statistics, Information, Images
bullet The Many Lives of Martin Delaney:  1812-1885
bullet Mark Twain in His Times
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet The Origin of Jim CrowLaws:  The 1898 Wilmington Race Riots
bullet Pinkerton Detective Agency
bullet

"Post-Civil War a new world for S.C. blacks:  Reconstruction paved way for opportunities by Wayne Washington (McClatchy Newpapers), May 30,2011

bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) -- 1864    1868    1872    1876
bullet Presidential Impeachment Proceedings - Andrew Johnson
bullet Race and Place--An African-American Community in the Jim Crow South:  Charlottesville, VA
bullet Racial Stereotype:  A Visual Studies Blog
bullet "Racism and Social Darwinism" - lecture notes (Wallace G. Mills, St. Mary's University, CA)
bullet Reconstruction Simulation (HarpWeek) - many documents
bullet Reconstruction (The History Channel)
bullet "Reconstruction" (LOC)
bullet Reconstruction Cartoons (Cartoonstock)
bullet Reconstruction:  The Second Civil War (The American Experience)
bullet Remembering Jim Crow (American RadioWorks)
bullet The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (PBS)
bullet Rutherford B. Hayes - POTUS site
bullet Rutherford B. Hayes - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center
bullet The Susan B. Anthony Trial
bullet These Americans:  American Lynchings - many photos
bullet Toward Racial Equality: 1857-1874 (Harper's Weekly)
bullet The Trial of Andrew Johnson, 1868 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The Trial of Sheriff Joseph Shipp (1907) for Lynching Ed Johnson
bullet

Ulysses S. Grant (The American Experience, PBS)

bullet Ulysses S. Grant Home Page (C. Scott)
bullet Ulysses S. Grant - POTUS site
bullet Ulysses S. Grant - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Uncle Remus
bullet Ulysses Grant - personal memoirs
bullet "We'll Sing to Abe Our Song!": Sheet Music about Lincoln, Emancipation, and the Civil War from the Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana
bullet Which 13th Amendment? A Discussion
bullet Without Sanctuary:  Photographs and Postcards of Lynchings in America

 
                                           Web Links
                                  
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
 
bullet 1860s:  Lyrics to many Negro Spirituals
bullet 1860s:  "Reconstruction" - Peter Cooper to President Johnson - leaflet (4 pages)
bullet 1864:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1865:  13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution
bullet 1865:  The Absolute Equality of All Before the Law - William Dickson
bullet 1865:  Amnesty Proclamation - President Andrew Johnson
bullet 1865:  Black Codes of Louisiana
bullet 1865:  Black Codes of Mississippi
bullet 1865:  "The Black Laws" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (2/11)
bullet 1865:  Colonel Samuel Thomas describes the attitudes of ex-Confederates toward the freedmen
bullet 1865:  Committee of Freedmen on Edisto Island, South Carolina, to the Freedmen's Bureau Commissioner; the Commissioner's Reply; and the Committee to the President (10/20-21)
bullet 1865:  Conditions in the Post-War South - letter by Edwin H. McCaleb
bullet 1865:  "The Election in New Jersey" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (11/25)
bullet 1865:  Elizabeth Cady Stanton to the Editor, "This is The Negro's Hour," National Anti-Slavery Standard, NY (12/26)
bullet 1865:  "The Error of the South" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 12, Dec 1865
bullet 1865:  "Franchise- And Not This Man!" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/5)
bullet 1865:  "Forty Acres and a Mule" - Special Field Order No. 15 - Order by the Commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi (1/15)
bullet 1865:  Jourdan Anderson declines his former master's invitation to return to his plantation - letter
bullet 1865:  Mississippi Black Codes
bullet 1865:  "Pardon-Should I Trust These Men?" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/5)
bullet 1865:  Plain Counsels for Freedmen - Clinton B. Fisk
bullet 1865:  Report on the Condition of the South - Carl Schurz
bullet 1865:  "The Right Way, the Best Way" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (6/3)
bullet 1865:  "Slaveocracy and Bondocracy" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 10, Oct 1865
bullet 1865:  "The South Poor in Cash, the North Bankrupt in Honor" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 9, Sept
bullet 1865:  "Sovereignty of States Fully Considered" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 8, Aug 1865
bullet 1865:  "Union, Disunion, and Reunion" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 6, June 1865
bullet 1865:  "What Shall Become of the Freedmen?" - from the Franklin Repository (Chambersburg, PA), 2/8
bullet 1865:  "White Supremacy and Negro Subordination" - The Old Guard / Volume 3, Issue 5, May 1865
bullet 1865-66:  Diary of Jared Nash
bullet 1865, 1866:  Report on Land Reform in the South Carolina Islands - James C. Beecher
bullet 1865-67?:  Circular, to the friends of Jefferson Davis
bullet late 1860s:  "I'm a Good 'Ole Rebel" - song lyrics by Major Innes Randolph
bullet 1866:  14th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution (ratified in 1868)
bullet 1866:  "The Civil Rights Bill" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (4/14)
bullet 1866-1875:  Civil Rights Acts
bullet 1866:  "Economise and pay your debt! Restore the South and increase your resources. Our national debt is to be paid" - broadside
bullet 1866:  Ex parte Milligan
bullet 1866:  The Freedmen’s Bureau Report on the Memphis Race Riots of 1866 - T. W. Gilbreth (5/22)
bullet 1866:  "The Burning of a Freedmen's School" - picture in Harper's Weekly (5/26)
bullet 1866:  First Reconstruction Act (3/2)
bullet 1866:  "Gen. Sherman's Officers Among the Ladies of Raleigh" - The Old Guard / Volume 4, Issue 6, June
bullet 1866:  "General Sherman in Raleigh" - The Old Guard / Volume 4, Issue 4, Apr 1866
bullet 1866:  "Holy Horror of Mrs. McCaffraty in a Washington City Street Passenger Car" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (2/24)
bullet 1866:  "How the Democratic Party Fell to Pieces" - The Old Guard / Volume 4, Issue 8, Aug 1866
bullet 1866:  "Impeachment and General Butler" - Harper's Weekly (12/15)
bullet 1866:  "Johnson Kicking the Freedmen's Bureau" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (April 14)
bullet 1866:  "King Andy" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (11/3)
bullet 1866-68?:  KKK political cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1866:  "Making Treason Odious" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (6/2)
bullet 1866:  "The Memphis Riots" - picture and news article in Harper's Weekly (5/26)
bullet 1866:  Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End
bullet 1866:  "Reconstruction" - article by Frederick Douglass in The Atlantic Monthly
bullet 1866:  Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (6/20)
bullet 1866:  "Review of President Johnson's Position on State Sovereignty" - The Old Guard Volume 4, Issue 2, Feb
bullet 1866:  "Some Facts about 'Southern Aggression'" - The Old Guard / Volume 4, Issue 1, Jan 1866
bullet 1866:  "Three Months Among the Reconstructionists" - Atlantic Monthly (Feb.)
bullet 1866:  "The Trial of the Government" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (5/26)
bullet 1866:  "Woman's Duty to Vote," Address at the Woman's Rights Convention, NY (5/10)
bullet 1866-68:  Various documents on Reconstruction and the Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
bullet 1867:  Addresses and Ceremonies at the New Year's Festival to the Freedmen (1/5)
bullet 1867:  Appeal to Congress for Impartial Suffrage - Frederick Douglass
bullet 1867:  Appealing to Racism in Arguing for Female Suffrage
bullet 1867:  "Education in the Southern States" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (11/9)
bullet 1867:  "Facetiae - Andy 'Reconstructing' the Reconstructionists" - The Old Guard / Volume 5, Issue 11, Nov
bullet 1867:  "The First Vote" - cover of Harper's Weekly (11/16)
bullet 1867:  Letter from Harriet Jacobs to Ednah Dow Cheney
bullet 1867?:  President Johnson's love for the soldier - braodside     image
bullet 1867:  Proceedings of the First Anniversary of the American Equal Rights Association
bullet 1867:  Second Reconstruction Act (3/23)
bullet 1867:  "Sixteen reasons why our Republican party should not run Gen. Grant for president in 1868. [Sixteen reasons] American Republicans" - broadside
bullet 1867:  Speech of Sojourner Truth at the First Annual Meeting of the American Equal Rights Association NYC (5/9)
bullet 1867:  Tenure of Office Act (3/2)
bullet 1867:  Thaddeus Stevens in Support of Black Suffrage
bullet 1867:  Third Reconstruction Act (3/23)
bullet 1868:  Admission ticket to the Senate impeachment of President Andrew Johnson (4/1)    another type of ticket
bullet 1868:  Andrew Johnson's Impeachment - sketch by Theodore R. Davis
bullet 1868:  Articles of Impeachment Against Andrew Johnson
bullet 1868:  Closing Arguments in the Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson - Sen. Thaddeus Stevens
bullet 1868:  Debate in the House on the Impeachment Resolution (2/25)
bullet 1868:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1868:  Dressmaker and Former Slave Elizabeth Keckley (ca.1818-1907), Tells How She Gained Her Freedom
bullet 1868:  "Effect of the Vote on the Eleventh Article of Impeachment" - political cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1868:  Final Vote on Johnson's Impeachment - The New York Times - front page and full text (5/16)
bullet 1868:  Fourth Reconstruction Act (3/11)
bullet 1868:  "Freedom's campaign songs. No. 1-4. New York" - broadside   images
bullet 1868:  Front Page (and full text) of The New York Times on President Johnson's Impeachment (2/24)
bullet 1868:  "How It Would Be If Some Ladies Had Their Own Way" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (5/16)
bullet 1868:  Impeachment Trial Ticket (3/13)
bullet 1868:  "Leaders of the Democratic Party" - political cartoon
bullet 1868:  Little Women - Louisa May Alcott (full text)
bullet 1868:  "The Modern Gulliver Among the Lilliputians" - political cartoon from Harper's Weekly (9/12)
bullet 1868:  "The Modern Samson"- political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (10/3)
bullet 1868:  On the Regeneration of the South - Daniel Ullmann
bullet 1868:  "One Vote Less" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/8)
bullet 1868:  Organization and Principles of the Ku Klux Klan
bullet 1868:  President Johnson as Samson - political cartoon - Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1868:  President Johnson Responds to Impeachment - The New York Times - front page and full text (3/23)
bullet 1868:  Ragged Dick - Horatio Alger, Jr.
bullet 1868:  Senate Trial Rules for the Impeachment of President Johnson
bullet 1868:  "Sickly Democrat" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (7/11)
bullet 1868:  "The Situation" - political cartoon showing a cannon aimed at President Johnson - Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1868:  Speech at the South Carolina Constitutional Convention by Richard H. Cain (2/17)
bullet 1868:  "This Is A White Man's Government" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (9/28)
bullet 1868:  "This Little Boy..." - political cartoon of President Johnson - Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1868:  "'Tis But a Change in Banner" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (9/26)
bullet 1868:  Trial Record of the Senate Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson
bullet 1868:  "Victory!" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (10/3)
bullet 1869:  15th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution (ratified in 1870)
bullet 1869:  A Democratic View of the 15th Amendment Proposition - speech by G.W. Woodward (D-PA) in the House (2/20)
bullet 1869:  Act to Strengthen Public Credit (3/18)
bullet 1869:  Elizabeth Cady Stanton on Black Suffrage
bullet 1869:  Excerpt from The Life of Jefferson Davis - Edward Pollard
bullet 1869:  Ex parte McCardle   (commentary)
bullet 1869:  "Farewell! A Long Farewell!" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (3/13)
bullet 1869:  First Inaugural Address of Ulysses S. Grant
bullet 1869:  "Our Established Church" - Catholic World (August)
bullet 1869:  Republican Support for Black Suffrage - from Speech of J. M. Broomall (R-PA) in the House (1/30)
bullet 1869:  "Republicans! Democrats! A word with you about negro suffrage ... [Signed] Oliver Ellsworth" - broadside
bullet 1869:  "Slavery in Massachusetts. Letter from Mr. Moore. To the editor of the Historical magazine. ... George H. Moore" - broadside
bullet 1869:  "Temperance" - Gerrit Smith to John Stuart Mill - broadside
bullet 1870:  "'All men free and equal.' The XVth amendment proclaimed. Message to Congress. - Proclamation of the President" - broadside
bullet 1870:  Horace Greeley to Josephine Griffing (9/7)
bullet 1870:  Ku Klux Costumes in North Carolina - From engraving (after a photograph) in G. B. Raum's The Existing Conflict
bullet 1870:  Letter from Judge Tourgee to Senator Abbott (NC) - on the KKK
bullet 1870:  "Negro Exodusters en route to Kansas, fleeing from the yellow fever, " Photomural from engraving. Harpers Weekly
bullet 1870:  Private Thomas Long assesses the meaning of black military service during the Civil War - letter
bullet 1870:  "Time Works Wonders" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (4/9)
bullet 1871:  E.L. Godkin Asesses Reconstruction - The Nation. 13: 336 (12/7)
bullet 1871:  "The Ku Klux Klan" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (11/4)
bullet 1871:  Ku Klux Klan Violence in Georgia
bullet 1871:  "Mr. Sumner's Civil Rights Bill" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (12/20)
bullet 1872:  Abram Colby, Testimony in Washington D.C., 1872. In Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States
bullet 1872:  "Children Cry for It" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (2/3)
bullet 1872:  "David and Goliath" - political cartoon - Harper's Weekly
bullet 1872:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1872:  Equality before the law protected by national statute - Speeches of Hon. Chas. Sumner, of Massachusetts, on his supplementary civil rights bill, as an amendment to the civil rights bill. In the Senate, Jan. 15, 17 and 31, Feb. 5, and May 21, 1872
bullet 1872:  "The Farmer Candidate en Route" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (5/4)
bullet 1872:  "Grand Larceny versus Petty Theft" - political cartoon in Leslie's Illustrated (9/28)
bullet 1872:  "Grant's First and Last Vote" - political cartoon in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (9/14)
bullet 1872:  "A Leaf from History for our Foreign-Born Citizens" - political cartoon in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (9/28)
bullet 1872:  "Lincoln, the Emancipator" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (4/20)
bullet 1872:  "The Man with the (Carpet) Bags" - anonymous cartoon in Puck
bullet 1872:  The Nation, "The State of the South"
bullet 1872:  Plea for Amnesty by Sen. Carl Schurz (R-MO) - Speech in the United States Senate (1/30)
bullet 1872:  "Red Hot" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (7/13)
bullet 1872:  The Rev. Elias Hill is attacked by the Ku Klux Klan - letter
bullet 1872:  Slaughterhouse Cases
bullet 1872:  Speeches, lectures, and letters by Wendell Phillips
bullet 1872:  Testimony by an Alabama Freedman before the Southern Claims Commission (7/31)
bullet 1873:  Coinage Act (2/12)
bullet 1873:  The Credit Mobilier Scandal Recounted
bullet 1873:  Second Inaugural Address of Ulysses S. Grant
bullet 1874:  "Coloured Rule in a Reconstructed (?) State" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (3/14)
bullet 1874:  "An Undoubted Right" - editorial in Harper's Weekly (5/30)
bullet 1874:  "Everything Points to a Democratic Victory This Fall" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (10/31)
bullet 1874:  "Will the American people never cease to oppress and torture the helpless poor? Peterboro" (12/12) - broadside
bullet 1874:  "Worse than Slavery" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (10/24)
bullet 1875:  Obituary of Andrew Johnson - New York Times (8/1)
bullet 1876:  "A Call for Tweed" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/19)
bullet 1876:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1876:  Grant's Farewell Address to Congress
bullet 1876:  "The Ignorant Vote" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (12/9)
bullet 1876:  "In Self-Defense" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (10/28)
bullet 1876:  Letter of Acceptance of the Nomination for the Presidency - Rutherford B. Hayes (7/8)
bullet 1876:  Letter to D.H. Chamberlain, Governor of South Carolina from Ulysses S. Grant (7/26)
bullet 1876:  Margaret Garner kills her daughter rather than see her returned to slavery
bullet 1876:  Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln - Frederick Douglass
bullet 1876:  "The Political Red Riding-Hood" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (9/2)
bullet 1876:  "Slippery Sam" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/12)
bullet 1876:  U.S. v. Cruikshank  
bullet 1877:  "Compromise, Indeed!" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (1/27)
bullet 1877:  Inaugural Address of Rutherford B. Hayes
bullet 1877:  "A Truce, Not a Compromise" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (2/17)
bullet 1879:  "The Education of Freedmen" - Harriet Beecher Stowe
bullet 1879:  Ex Parte Virginia
bullet 1879:  "The Negro Exodus" - James B. Bunnion in The Atlantic Monthly 44 (1879): 222-230
bullet 1880:  Frederick Douglass assesses the condition of the freedmen in 1880
bullet 1880:  Testimony Before U.S. Senate Regarding the Agricultural Labor Force in the South - James T. Rapier
bullet 1881:  The Color Line - Frederick Douglass
bullet 1881:  Description of Sharecropping Tenants on a Georgia Plantation
bullet 1881:  "The Effects of Negro Suffrage" - H. H. Chalmers
bullet 1881:  Excerpt from On the Picket Line of Freedom - Albert T. Morgan
bullet 1881:  "My Escape from Slavery" - Frederick Douglass
bullet 1881:  Uncle Remus -- Legends of the Old Plantation
bullet 1882:  Share-Crop Contract
bullet 1882-1965:  "Lynchings" - chart
bullet 1883:  Civil Rights Cases
bullet 1883:  A Meeting and Discussion Concerning the Civil Rights Act of 1883
bullet 1886:  "The Free Negroes of North Carolina" - David Dodge
bullet 1886:  "The Future of the Colored Race" - Frederick Douglass
bullet 1886:  "The New South" - speech by Henry W. Grady (12/22)
bullet 1888:  The Race Problem in America - Alexander Crummell
bullet 1889:  Divided We Conquer - A White Plantation Owner Undermines the Knights of Labor
bullet 1889:  Henry Grady Sells the “New South”
bullet 1880s:  “Almost Broken Spirits” - Farmers in the New South
bullet 1880s:  The South’s Recovery - Who Paid the Price of Success
bullet 1880s-1960s:  Samples of Jim Crow Laws
bullet 1890:  Election Methods in the South - Former Congressman Robert Smalls (SC)
bullet 1890:  Mississippi Constitution
bullet 1891:  What the Southern Negro is Doing for Himself - Samuel J. Barrows
bullet 1892:  Lynch Law in All its Phases - Ida B. Wells
bullet 1892:  Lynching in Arkansas
bullet 1892:  The Lynching of Bob Harper
bullet 1892:  United We Stand - Tom Watson on Interracial Southern Populism
bullet 1893:  Burned at the Stake - A Black Man Pays for a Town’s Outrage
bullet 1893:  History is a Weapon - Ida B. Wells
bullet 1895:  Atlanta Exposition Address - Booker T. Washington
bullet 1895:  A Black Lawyer Argues Against Disenfranchisement
bullet 1895:  "A Red Record: Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynchings in the United States, 1892-1893-1894" - Ida B. Wells
bullet 1895:  A Word of Warning - A Former Slave Urges Constitutional Caution
bullet 1896:  "The Negro's Place in History" - Prof. Willis Boughton
bullet 1896:  One African-American Dreams About Rebuilding the South
bullet 1896:  Plessy v. Ferguson
bullet 1896:  Plessy v. Ferguson - Justice Harlan Dissents
bullet 1897:  "Strivings of the Negro People" - W. E. B. Du Bois in The Atlantic Monthly
bullet 1898:  Killing the Messenger - Ida Wells-Barnett Protests a Postmaster’s Murder
bullet 1898:  The Murder of Postmaster Baker
bullet 1898:  Reading the Fine Print - The Grandfather Clause in Louisiana
bullet 1899:  "A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South" - W. E. B. Du Bois in Atlantic Monthly (Jan.)
bullet 1899:  Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County, GA
bullet 1899:  The Vindication of the South - B. B. Munford
bullet 1900:  Lynch Law in America - Ida B. Wells
bullet 1900:  "Paths of Hope for the Negro: Practical Suggestions of a Southerner" - Jerome Dowd in Century Magazine (Dec.)
bullet 1900:  Poll tax receipt (Arkansas)
bullet 1900:  “Their Own Hotheadedness” - Senator Benjamin R.“Pitchfork Ben” Tillman Justifies Violence Against Southern Blacks
bullet 1901:  "Civilization in Southern Mills" - Mother Jones - it originally appeared in the International Socialist Review (March)
bullet 1901:  "The Freedman's Bureau" - W. E. B. Du Bois in The Atlantic Monthly 87 (1901): 354-365
bullet 1901:  George H. White's Farewell Address to Congress, Washington, DC (1/29) - first black Senator during Reconstruction
bullet 1901:  Making the Atlanta Compromise - Booker T. Washington Is Invited to Speak
bullet 1901:  "No White Man to Lose His Vote" - 1901 flyer - Virginia Constitutional Convention
bullet 1901:  “Equal and Exact Justice to Both Races” - Booker T. Washington on the Reaction to his Atlanta Compromise Speech
bullet 1901:  Up From Slavery:  An Autobiography - Booker T. Washington (full text)
bullet 1902:  Burned into Memory- An African American Recalls Mob Violence in Early 20th century Florida (recalled in 1985)
bullet 1902:  Disfranchisement Debate in the Virginia Legislature
bullet 1902:  "Of the Training of Black Men" - W. E. B. Du Bois in The Atlantic Monthly 90 (1902): 289-297.
bullet 1902:  "The Free Colored People of North Carolina" by Charles W. Chesnutt in The Southern Workman
bullet 1904:  "'Jim Crow' Street-Car Law Set to Catch Negroes" - The Richmond Planet (4/30)
bullet 1904:  Richmond African Americans Boycott Streetcars
bullet 1906:  Defending Home and Hearth - Walter White Recalls the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot (as recalled in 1948)
bullet 1908:  Children in the Cotton Mills (photos)
bullet 1914-1930:  Table on Per Capita Annual Expenditure on Public School Education in the South, 1914-1915 and 1929-1930
bullet 1915:  An NAACP Official Calls for Censorship of The Birth of a Nation
bullet 1938:  WPA Federal Writers Project (Oral History) interview with Mrs. Ella Gooding (age 80) and Mr. Robert Gooding (age 82), June 28
bullet 1955:  Mississippi Literacy Test
bullet 1965:  Alabama Literacy Test
bullet 1965?:  Louisiana Literacy Test

 

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing