Primary Source Documents
bullet 1893 World's Fair
bullet The 1898 Wilmington, NC Race Riots Foundation
bullet The 1901 Tenement House Act by Andrew Dolkart (Lower East Side Tenement Museum)
bullet 19th & Early 20th Century Labor Prints, 1863-1908
bullet The 3 Cities Project (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles): 1870s-1930s
bullet Alfred Stieglitz:  New Perspectives -- featured photographs of NYC (1892-1917)
bullet American Coal Mining and Miners in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era (eHistory) - doc. links
bullet The American Immigration Center (U. S. govt. site)
bullet The American Immigration Home Page
bullet Analyzing 19c Immigration Cartoons - Prof. Roland Machand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet Andrew Carnegie:  The Richest Man in the World (PBS)
bullet Angel Island Poetry
bullet Aspiration, Acculturation, and Impact: Immigration to the United State, 1789-1930 (Harvard University)
bullet Becoming American: The Chinese Experience (PBS)
bullet Before and After the Great Earthquake and Fire: Early Films of San Francisco, 1897-1916 (LOC)
bullet Benjamin Harrison - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet Benjamin Harrison - POTUS site
bullet A Biography of America:  Capital and Labor (1882-1901) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet A Biography of America:  The New City (1882-1894)
bullet The Catholic Worker Movement
bullet "Catholicism in Nineteenth Century America" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet The Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876
bullet Chester A. Arthur - POTUS site
bullet Chester A. Arthur - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Chicago:  City of the Century (PBS, American Experience)
bullet Child Labor in America:  1908-1912
bullet The Chinese-American Contributions to the Transcontinental Railroad
bullet The Chinese-American Experience:  1857-1892 (HarpWeek)
bullet The Chinese Must Go!  The Debate Over the California Constitutional Convention, 1878-1879 - Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet Chinese-American Women--A History of Resilience and Resistance
bullet The Chinese in California, 1850-1925 (LOC)
bullet The City Beautiful Movement (1)
bullet The City Beautiful Movement (2)
bullet City Life in the Late 19c - personal accounts and original photographs
bullet Documenting "The Other Half": The Social Reform Photography of Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine (University of Virginia)
bullet Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement
bullet E Pluribus Unum (Except the Chinese)
bullet Emma Lazarus
bullet "Emma Lazarus and Her Vision" by Bette Roth Young
bullet Ellis Island (The History Channel)
bullet Ellis Island Official Web Site      (Explore Your Family's History)
bullet European Immigration (Spartacus)
bullet The Five Points, NYC
bullet Five Points, NYC - Picture History
bullet The Five Points - New York's Irish Working Class in the 1850s
bullet Florence Kelley: A Commitment to Social Work
bullet The Great Chicago Fire & The Web of Memory
bullet The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake And Fire
bullet Grover Cleveland - POTUS site
bullet Grover Cleveland - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1870        1880        1890        1900        1910        1920
bullet Historical Metropolitan Populations in the United States - lots of popul. stats
bullet Honky Tonks, Hymns & the Blues: American Music From Back Roads To Big City
bullet Horatio Alger Digital Repository/Stories (No. Illinois Univ.)
bullet Ida B. Wells-Barnett - Paper 1    Paper 2
bullet Images from Josh Brown’s lecture, "Seeing Americans: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Gilded Age Pictorial Press," Illustrating the Gilded Age: Political Cartoons and the Press in American Politics and Culture, 1877-1901, Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center, Fremont, Ohio, May 19/June 5, 2008  Part I (#1-58)    Part II (#59-107)
bullet Immigrant and Ethnic America at
bullet "Immigration and the Labor Labor-Supply" - Atlantic Monthly (4/1919)
bullet Immigration at the Turn of the 20th Century (eHistory)
bullet Immigration History Research Center (University of Minnesota)
bullet The Immigration and Naturalization Service Home Page
bullet Immigration- Stories of Yesterday & Today
bullet "The Issei Immigrants and Civil Rights"
bullet Jane Addams
bullet Jane Addams Hull-House Museum Home Page
bullet "Judaism in America" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet Kearneyism, the Chinese, and Labor Unrest in California - 1877
bullet Labor-Management Conflict (eHistory)
bullet Landmarks in Immigration History (timeline)
bullet Laura Ingalls Wilder
bullet A Legal History of Chinese-Americans
bullet The Life of a City:  Early Films of New York, 1898-1906 (LOC)
bullet The Lower East Side Tenement Museum
bullet Map-->"Foreign-Born in the United States, 1890" (interactive)
bullet Map-->"Immigration:  1880-1920" - percentage of population foreign born in the U. S.
bullet Map-->"Settlement in the United States, 1900"
bullet "The Myth of the Melting Pot" - Washington Post
bullet Nativism in 19c America
bullet Nativism, Socialism, and the Populist Demise
bullet The New Americans- The Immigrant Experience (PBS)
bullet "New York City Demographics" - Priam Saywack (Fordham Univ.)
bullet New York City:  19c Sports Scenes (The Philadelphia Print Shop, Ltd.)
bullet New York Underground (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet The New Urban "Ettiquette" -"Youth's Educator For Home And Society" (1896)
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet On the Lower East Side:  Observations of Life in Lower Manhattan at the Turn of the Century
bullet On the Trail of the Immigrant
bullet Philanthropy 101 - Charitable Giving during the Gilded Age (The American Experience, PBS)
bullet The Poems of Emma Lazarus
bullet The Real "Gangs of New York" (HistoryTelevision)
bullet Skyscrapers of the Early 20c:  1900-1925
bullet South Asian Diaspora
bullet The Statue of Liberty
bullet "Tenement Houses and Progressive Solutions" - Camille Avena (Fordham Univ.)
bullet The Triangle Factory Fire, 1911 - 100 Years Later - 2011 (Cornell Univ.)
bullet Turn-of-the-Century America:  Detroit Publishing Company / Photographs (1880-1920)
bullet Un Povero Uomo:  An Immigrant's Odyssey in America (eHistory)
bullet The Urban Experience in Chicago (University of Chicago) - many documents and photos
bullet Urban life - early short films of New York City:  1898-1906 (LOC)
bullet Virtual Ellis Island Tour
bullet Virtual Tour of "The Elms," A Gilded Age Mansion in Newport, RI
bullet William McKinley - POTUS site
bullet William McKinley - Miller Institute, University of Virginia

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1840-60:  Immigration by Place of Origin:  1840-1860 - chart
bullet 1849:  “Embryo Courtezans and Felons” - New York Police Chief George W. Matsell Describes the City’s Vagrant and Delinquent Children
bullet 1852:  “We Are Not the Degraded Race You Would Make Us” - Norman Asing Challenges Chinese Immigration Restrictions
bullet 1854:  “Born in Sin, Nurtured in Crime” - The Children of New York City’s Notorious Five Points
bullet 1854:  People v Hall
bullet 1860:  “We Chinese Are Viewed Like Thieves and Enemies” - Pun Chi Appeals to Congress to Protect the Rights of Chinese
bullet 1862:  An Act to Protect Free White Labor Against Competition with Chinese Coolie Labor and to Discourage the Immigration of the Chinese into the State of California (4/26)
bullet 1862:  California Anti-Coolie Act
bullet 1862:  Chinese Police Tax Act (4/26)
bullet 1867:  "The Mysteries and Miseries of New York City. Interior of Mrs. McMahan's apartment at No. 22 Roosevelt Street." - wood engraving based on a sketch by Albert Berghaus, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (2/2)
bullet 1868:  Burlingame-Seward Treaty
bullet 1869:  Innocents Abroad - Mark Twain (full text)
bullet 1869:  "The Philosophy of Immigration" - Catholic World (August)
bullet 1869:  "Pacific Chivalry" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (8/7)
bullet 1869:  "The Sanitary and Moral Conditions of New York City" - Catholic World (August)
bullet 1870-1920:  Urban and Rural Population, 1870-1920 - chart
bullet 1870:  "The Street Vendors of New York" - Scribners Monthly / Volume 1, Issue 2, December 1870
bullet 1871:  "The Brains that Achieved the Tammany Victory at the Rochester Democratic Convention" - political cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly
bullet 1871:  "The Chinese Question" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (2/18)
bullet 1871:  The Gentle, Inoffensive Chinese - Mark Twain from Roughing It, Volume II, Chapter XIII.
bullet 1871:  "Going Through The Form Of Universal Suffrage" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (11/11)
bullet 1872:  "The Life of the Street Rats" - Charles Loring Brace
bullet 1873:  "Italian Street Musicians and Their Masters" - wood engraving based on a sketch by Matthew Morgan, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (3/8)
bullet 1874:  "The Chinese:  Facts for Atlantic Papers" - San Francisco Real Estate Circular
bullet 1874:  "The red flag in New York--Riotous communist workingmen driven from Tompkins Square by the mounted police, Tuesday, January 13th." - wood engraving based on a sketch by Matthew Morgan, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (1/31)
bullet 1875:  "No Church Need Apply" - Thomas Nast cartoon - Harper's Weekly (5/8)
bullet 1875:  The Page Law
bullet 1876:  "The Chinaman in California" - chapter XIII in Two Years in California - Mary Cone
bullet 1876:  Letters from California - D. L. Phillips   (entire text)
bullet 1876:  Memorial of the Chinese Six Companies to U.S. Grant, President of the United States
bullet 1876-1920:  Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876-1920 - chart
bullet 1877:  "New York City--Early morning at a police station--Turning out the vagrant night lodgers." - wood engraving based on a sketch by Fernando Miranda, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (2/10)
bullet 1877:  "New York City--A tramp's ablutions--An early morning scene in Madison Square."  - wood engraving, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (7/21)
bullet 1877:  Offense of the Spoils System - Roscoe Conkling
bullet 1877:  Report of the Joint Special Committee to Investigate Chinese Immigration (2/27)
bullet 1878:  Fair’s Fair - Joseph McDonnell Argues for the Acceptance of Aliens
bullet 1878:  The Fight Begins at Home - Jewett Defends Asian Immigrants
bullet 1878:  “Our Misery and Despair” - Denis Kearney Blasts Chinese Immigration
bullet 1878-79:  Various Documents on the Chinese Immigration Controversy      (additional documents)
bullet 1879:  "Every Dog (No Distinction Of Color) Has His Day" - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (2/8)
bullet 1879:  Progress and Poverty - Henry George (abridged version)
bullet 1880:  Chinese Exclusion Treaty
bullet 1880:  Edward Holton's Observations About Denis Kearney, a Leading Advocate of Chinese Exclusion
bullet 1881:  "De Yaller Chinee" in The Century, a popular quarterly. / Volume 23, Issue 1, Nov.
bullet 1882:  Chinese Exclusion Act
bullet 1882:  "(Dis-)Honors are Easy"- political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (5/20)
bullet 1882:  Progress and Poverty - Henry George
bullet 1883:  The Demon of the Orient - Allen S. Williams
bullet 1883:  "The New Colossus" - poem by Emma Lazarus
bullet 1884:  "Enactments So Utterly Un-American" - Constance Gordon-Cumming
bullet 1884:  "Ready for Business" - political cartoon in Puck (7/23)
bullet 1884:  Whose Library Is It Anyway - A Visit to the Lenox
bullet 1884:  The Working Girls of Boston - report of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor
bullet 1885:  A German Radical Emigrates to America
bullet 1885:  "Perils--The City" - Josiah Strong
bullet 1885:  “Rock Springs is Killed” - White Reaction to the Rock Springs Riot
bullet 1885:  "To the president of the United States, and to the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled:  Protest against ill-treatment of the Chinese" - broadside
bullet 1885:  “To This We Dissented” - The Rock Springs Riot
bullet 1886:  Haymarket Martyr Albert Parsons’s Last Words to His Wife
bullet 1886:  Haymarket Martyr Louis Lingg Says Good-bye
bullet 1886:  “I Am Sorry Not to Be Hung” - Oscar Neebe and the Haymarket Affair
bullet 1886:  Illustration of Statue of Liberty, in Liberty Enlightening the World
bullet 1886:  Race and Racism at the 1886 Knights of Labor Convention
bullet 1886:  Report of the Tenement House Committee, Working Women's Society
bullet 1886:  Yick Wo v. Hopkins  
bullet 1888:  An act to prohibit the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States
bullet 1888:  “I Stumbled on the Place by Sheer Accident” - Oscar Ameringer Discovers the Cincinnati Public Library in 1888 (as recalled in 1940)
bullet 1888:  Scott Act
bullet 1889:  Chae Chan Ping v. United States
bullet 1890:  A Little Jewish Girl in the Russian Pale - Mary Antin
bullet 1890:  "China's Menace to the World" - The Forum Magazine (Oct.)
bullet 1890:  How the Other Half Lives - Jacob Riis
bullet 1890, 1892:  "A Typical East-Side Block", (photos)
bullet 1891:  Mark Twain's Observations About Chinese Immigrants in California
bullet 1892:  Geary Act
bullet 1892:  Richard Croker on Tammany Hall
bullet 1893:  Fong Yue Ting v. U.S.
bullet 1893:  Protestant Paranoia - The American Protective Association Oath
bullet 1893:  "Russian Jews as Desirable Immigrants" - Ida M. Van Etten
bullet 1893:  The Secret Oath of the American Protective Association
bullet 1893:  Slumming Among the Unemployed - William Wycoff Studies Joblessness in the1890s
bullet 1893:  The Subjective Value of a Social Settlements  - Jane Addams
bullet 1894:  Shepp's New York City Illustrated - Another View of Inner City Life
bullet 1894:  "Why the Best Men Do Not Go Into Politics" - James Bryce in The American Commonwealth, Vol. II
bullet 1896:  "An East Side Ramble" - William Dean Howells Impressions and Experiences (New York: Harpers & Brothers)
bullet 1896:  "The Jews of New York" - Jacob Riis
bullet 1896:  "Restriction of Immigration" by Francis A. Walker, The Atlantic Monthly (June)
bullet 1896:  "Stranger at Our Gate" - political cartoon on Jewish immigration in The Ram's Horn (4/25)
bullet 1898:  "Hull House and the Ward Boss" - Ray Stannard Baker
bullet 1898:  "The Russian Jew in America" - Abraham Cahan Atlantic Monthly Vol. LXXXII (July 1898): 263-287
bullet 1898:  United States v. Wong Kim Ark
bullet 1898:  "Why the Ward Boss Rules" - Jane Addams in The Outlook (4/2)
bullet 1899:  "Chinese vs. Negroes as American Citizens" - Mr. Samuel Scottron in The Brooklyn Eagle
bullet 1899:  "Democracy or Militarism" - Jane Addams (4/30)
bullet 1899:  The Growth of Cities in the 19c - Adna Weber
bullet 1899:  "The Tenement-House Exhibition of 1899" - Lawrence Veiller Charities Review 10 (1900-1901), 19-25
bullet 1898-1899:  "The Housing Problem in Great Cities" - E. R. L. Gould - Quarterly Review of Economics 14, 378-393
bullet 1899-1900:  "New York's New Building Code" - Lawrence Veiller Charities Review 9 (1899-1900), 388-391
bullet late 1890s:  "Why Our Cities Are Badly Governed" - political cartoon in The Ram's Horn  
bullet late 19c-early 20c"Examination of Immigrants at Ellis Island" (photo)
bullet 1900-01:  "The Tenement-House Exhibition of 1899" - Lawrence Veiller Charities Review 10 (1900-1901), 19-25
bullet 1902:  "Americans in the Raw:  The high-tide of immigrants—their strange possessions and their meager wealth—what becomes of them - Edward Lowry in The World's Work
bullet 1902:  "Among the Coal Miners" - Margaret Blake Robinson in Missionary Review, Vol. 25, pp. 835-39
bullet 1902:  "Child Labor in New York City Tenements" - Mary Van Kleeck in Charities and the Commons (1/18)
bullet 1902:  A Clear and Present Danger - The Chinese Exclusion Act
bullet 1902:  "Dens of Death" - photo from Jacob A. Riis. The Battle With the Slum (between paragraphs 15 and 16)
bullet 1902:  The Evolution of the Tenement (floor plans)
bullet 1902:  Eye on the East - Labor Calls for Ban on Chinese Immigration
bullet 1902:  "The Life of a Coal Miner" - Rev. John McDowell in The World's Work 4 (October 1902): 2659-60
bullet 1902:  Lincoln Steffens Exposes “Tweed Days in St. Louis”
bullet 1902:  Riverside Tenements in Brooklyn (photo)
bullet 1903:  "The Biography of a Chinaman" - Lee Chew
bullet 1903:  "Coney Island Raid Resented by a Mob" - The New York Times (8/9)
bullet 1903:  George Washington Plunkitt, "The Curse of Civil Service Reform," Plunkitt of Tammany Hall - William O. Riordan
bullet 1903:  Portrait of Lee Chew (photo)
bullet 1904:  Poverty - Robert Hunter (ch. VI on "The Immigrant")
bullet 1904:  Chinese Exclusion Extension Act  (4/27) - excerpts
bullet 1904:  Review of Opening Night at Coney Island, NYC - NY Times
bullet 1904:  Shame of the Cities - Lincoln Steffens
bullet 1905:  A Cap Maker's Story: Rose Schneiderman - Independent, LVIII (4/27)
bullet 1905:  "Honest Graft" - George Washington Plunkitt
bullet 1905:  “I Seen My Opportunities and I Took ‘Em” - An Old-Time Pol Preaches Honest Graft
bullet 1905:  Plunkitt’s Plain Talk - Satirizing Steffens
bullet 1905:  William T. Riordon, from Plunkitt of Tammany Hall
bullet 1906:  "The Chinese Boycott" - John W. Foster (Atlantic Monthly, Jan.)
bullet 1906:  "IMMIGRATION QUESTIONS ANNOY AN AMBASSADOR; Senor Nabuco of Brazil Resents Some of Those Asked. ANSWERS UNDER PROTEST Then Telegraphs Secretary Root About it and an Apology Will Probably Be Offered" - NY Times (11/16)
bullet 1906:  Naturalization Act
bullet 1906:  "The New York Pushcart: Recommendations of the Mayor's Commission - Mayor's Pushcart Commission - Charities and the Commons  16 (22 September 1906): 615-18
bullet 1906:  The Secret Life of Shop Girls - O. Henry’s Short Story “The Trimmed Lamp”
bullet 1906-1907:  "The Day's Work of a 'New Law' Tenement Inspector" - Lewis E. Palmer Charities and the Commons 17 (1906-1907), 80-90
bullet 1906-7:  "Working House of Women in Factories" - Mary Van Kleeck Charities and Commons 17 (1906-07), 13-21
bullet 1907:  Immigration Act of 1907
bullet 1908:  "The Causes of Poverty" - Lilian Brandt Political Science Quarterly, 23 (1908):637-651
bullet 1908:  "Child Labor in New York City Tenements" - Mary Van Kleeck Charities and the Commons 18 January 18
bullet 1908:  "Races in the United States" - William Z. Ripley (Atlantic Monthly, Dec.)
bullet 1909:  "Girl Strikers Go To The City Hall," New York Times (12/4)
bullet 1909:  "Girl Strikers Riot; Quelled By Police," New York Times (11/27)
bullet 1909:  "Waist Strike On; 18,000 Women Out," New York Times (11/24)
bullet 1909:  "Waist Strike Pickets Parade Through Shop District in Autos," New York Call (12/22)
bullet 1910-40:  Angel Island Immigration Station Poetry
bullet 1910:  "First Days at Hull-House" - Jane Addams
bullet 1911:  "Home Work in the Tenements" - Elizabeth C. Watson Survey 25 (4 February 1911), 772-781
bullet 1911:  The Jewish Daily Forward Reports the Triangle Tragedy
bullet 1911:  Lament for Lives Lost - Rose Schneiderman and the Triangle Fire
bullet 1911:  The Lure of the Past, Present, and Future - George W. Bryan
bullet 1911:  Minute by Minute - The World’s Account of the Triangle Fire
bullet 1911:  Two New York City Firemen Testify about the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
bullet 1911:  The Principles of Scientific Management (excerpts) - Frederick Winslow Taylor
bullet 1911:  Rosenfeld’s Requiem - The Triangle Fire Victims in Verse
bullet 1911:  Statistical review of immigration, 1820-1910. Distribution of immigrants, 1850-1900-  Frederick C. Croxton -  Washington : G.P.O
bullet 1912:  The Promised Land - Mary Antin
bullet 1916-21:  Seven Letters from the Great Migration
bullet 1917:  "The Great Earthquake and Fire of 1906" - Chapter 15 in My Seventy Years in California by J. A. Graves
bullet 1919:  "Immigration and the Labor Labor-Supply" - Atlantic Monthly (4/1919)
bullet 1921:  William C. Pond's Ministry Among Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
bullet 1927:  General Comments on the Progress of L. A. - Jackson A. Graves    
bullet 1929:  Recollections of a Norwegian Immigrant - Andreas Ueland
bullet 1947:  "Henry Ford is Dead in Dearbonh, MI" (4/7)
bullet 2008:  "Jacob Riis:  Shedding Light on New York City's 'Other Half'" - Robert Siegel - NPR (6/30)

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing