Primary Source Documents
bullet The 1900 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1904 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1908 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The 1912 Election - Harper's Weekly website - many political cartoons
bullet The World of 1898 - The Spanish-American War (LOC)
bullet Alcohol, Temperance & Prohibition
bullet The Almanac of Theodore Roosevelt - many links and docs.
bullet America, Russia, and the Meeting of Frontiers
bullet America's Wars - The Spanish-American War (History Guy)
bullet Benjamin Harrison - POTUS site
bullet Benjamin Harrison - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet "The Birth of U. S. Imperialism" - article by Christopher Conway
bullet "Black, White, and Yellow: Journalism and Correspondents of the Spanish-American War" - Jess Geissel
bullet The Boxer Rebellion
bullet Buffalo Soldiers at San Juan Hill
bullet The Canal That Almost Wasn't (History House)
bullet Cartoons of the Early 1900s
bullet Cartoons of Theodore Roosevelt (The Theodore Roosevelt Center, Dickinson State Univ.)
bullet Chester A. Arthur - POTUS site
bullet Chester A. Arthur - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Creating an Empire: U. S. Expansion at the Turn of the 20c (American Social History Project) - many good docs.
bullet Critical Carricatures of the Hawaiian Kingdom:  1875-1905
bullet Crucible of Empire--The Spanish-American War (PBS)
bullet Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy (1898-1914) - Mt. Holyoke Univ.
bullet Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy (1898-1900) - Princeton Univ.
bullet The Era of William McKinley (eHistory)
bullet The Great White Fleet:  "Big Stick" Diplomacy Afloat
bullet The Greely Expedition (The American Experience, PBS)
bullet Grover Cleveland  - POTUS site
bullet Grover Cleveland  - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Hawaii's Last Queen (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Historical Census Browser:  1870        1880        1890        1900        1910
bullet Ida Saxton McKinley (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Images from the Philippine-U. S. War (Historical Text Archives)
bullet Images of the Spanish-American War
bullet Liberty and American Imperialism
bullet Make the Dirt FLY! - The Building of the Panama Canal (Smithsonian Institute)
bullet "Manifest Destiny: The Old v. The New" - chart
bullet Map-->"The Spanish-American War"
bullet "The Myth of American Isolationism--Reinterpreting the Past" by Paul Johnson (Foreign Affairs, May/June, 1995)
bullet "New Manifest Destiny--American Imperialism" - slideshow presentation (57 slides)
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet The Panama Canal
bullet The Papers of Theodore Roosevelt (LOC)
bullet Philippine Centennial Documents
bullet Philippine History
bullet Portsmouth Peace Treaty: 1905-2005
bullet Presidential Election Map & Stats -- 1896     1900     1904     1908     1912     1916
bullet Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age- Nineteenth and Early Twentieth-Century Perspectives (LOC)
bullet "Remember the Maine!" (Smithsonian Magazine)
bullet The Sensational Role of Yellow Journalism
bullet The Spanish-American War Centennial Page
bullet Spanish-American  War in Motion Pictures (LOC)
bullet "The Spanish-American War in US Media Culture" - essay by James Castonguay in American Quarterly
bullet Theodore Roosevelt - POTUS site
bullet Theodore Roosevelt - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet "'The White Man's Burden' and Its Critics" - by Jim Zwick
bullet Things to do in Panama when you Have Yellow Fever (History House)
bullet A War in Perspective:  1898-1998 (NY Public Library Exhibit)
bullet Westward by Sea- A Maritime Perspective on American Expansion, 1820-1890 (LOC)
bullet William Howard Taft - POTUS site
bullet William Howard Taft - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet William McKinley - POTUS site
bullet William McKinley - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet William McKinley in cartoons (eHistory)
bullet Woodrow Wilson - POTUS site
bullet Woodrow Wilson - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet The World of 1898:  The Spanish-American War (LOC)

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                          Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1829:  Treaty between the United States and Hawaii (12/26)
bullet 1833:  Traveler John Ball Visits Hawaii in 1833
bullet 1849:  U. S. Treaty with the Hawaiian Islands (12/20)
bullet 1854:  Commodore Matthew Perry:  When We Landed in Japan
bullet 1854:  Treaty of Kanagawa
bullet 1854:  President Fillmore's Letter to the Emperor of Japan
bullet 1858:  The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and Japan (The Harris Treaty)
bullet 1858:  Treaty of Tien-Tsin (6/18/1858)
bullet 1868:  Burlingame-Seward Treaty
bullet 1868:  Check for the purchase of Alaska transcript (3/30)
bullet 1875:  Treaty of Reciprocity between the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom (5/31)
bullet 1876-1920:  Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876-1920 - chart
bullet 1884:  Hawai'i-United States Convention (12/6)
bullet 1885:  "The independence of Hawaii" - editorial article from the Pacific Commercial advertiser (7/28)
bullet 1885:  Our Country - Josiah Strong
bullet 1887:  Constitution Kingdom of Hawaii of 1887 (7/6)
bullet 1890:  "American Influence in China" - John Russell Young, North American Review (Aug.)
bullet 1890:  "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" - Alfred Thayer Mahan in the Oct. issue of Atlantic Monthly
bullet 1891:  "On Anglo-Saxon Predominance" - Josiah Strong
bullet 1892:  Speech by President Grover Cleveland on Hawaii (12/18)
bullet 1893:  President Cleveland's Message on Hawaiian Sovereignty (12/18)
bullet 1893:  World's Parliament of Religions" - Rev. J. H. Barrows - Christianity in Asia
bullet 1895:  "The Business World vs. the Politicians" - Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
bullet 1895:  "On American Jurisdiction in the Western Hemisphere" - Richard Olney
bullet 1896:  "America's Interest in Eastern Asia" -  John Barrett, North American Review (March)
bullet 1896:  "American Interests in the Cuban Revolution" - Grover Cleveland
bullet 1896:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1897:  "The Absurdity of War" - E. L. Godkin, The Century (Jan. )
bullet 1897:  Breckenridge Amendment
bullet 1897:  "Chinese Slavery in America" -  Charles Frederick Holder, North American Review (Sept.)
bullet 1898-1920:  Anti-Imperialist League Documents
bullet 1898:  "The Acquisition of the Philippines" - President McKinley
bullet 1898:  "America's Interests in China" - General James H. Wilson in The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 495 (Feb.)
bullet 1898:  American Soldiers in the Philippines Write Home about the War
bullet 1898:  American Troops in the Phillipines - photo
bullet 1898:  The Annexation of the Hawaiian Islands
bullet 1898:  The Battle of Manila Bay - Admiral George Dewey
bullet 1898:  "The Blowing up of the Maine" - Albert Shaw
bullet 1898:  "Chinese Exclusion" - Robert Green Ingersoll
bullet 1898:  "Civilization Begins at Home" - political cartoon
bullet 1898:  Congressional Medal of Honor winner Frank Anders describes a skirmish during the Philippine Insurrection (sound file)
bullet 1898:  Date With Destiny - The N. G. Gonzales Diary
bullet 1898:  DeLôme Letter
bullet 1898:  "Dewey Smashes Spain's Fleet!" - The World's front page (5/2)
bullet 1898:  "First Speech Against Imperialism" -  William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Trans-Mississippi Exposition, Omaha, Neb. (6/14)
bullet 1898:  Hearst’s Journal Blames Spain
bullet 1898:  "Jefferson Versus Imperialism" - William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal (12/25)
bullet 1898:  Joint Resolution to provide for the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands (7/7)
bullet 1898:  "The March of the Flag" - Albert Beveridge (9/16)
bullet 1898:  “A Message to García” - Elbert Hubbard’s Paean to Perseverance
bullet 1898:  The New York World reports the battleship Maine explosion
bullet 1898:  "Our Future in the Pacific - What We Have There to Hold and Win" - G. W. Commodore Melville in The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 496 (Mar.)
bullet 1898:  President McKinley's Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation (12/21)
bullet 1898:  "Pruebas de cariño" [Signs of Friendship]. El Cardo [The Thistle], Madrid - caricature (2/4)
bullet 1898:  Recognition of the Independence of Cuba
bullet 1898:  "Save Me From My Friends!"  - political cartoon from Puck (9/7)
bullet 1898:  "Seward's Ideas of Territorial Expansion" - Frederic Bancroft in The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 500 (July)
bullet 1898:  "The Star in the East" - drawing for cartoon published in The World (April)
bullet 1898:  A Times Editorial on the Maine Tragedy (2/17)      (another page)
bullet 1898:  "To the Person Sitting in Darkness" - Mark Twain
bullet 1898:  Treaty of Paris, 1898
bullet 1898:  U. S. v V. Wong KimArk (3/28) -14th Amendment to the Constitution applied to all people born in the United States "regardless of race or color."
bullet 1898:  War Prayer written by Mark Twain (even though he opposed the war)
bullet 1898:  "The War With Spain and After" - Walter Hines (Atlantic Monthly, June)
bullet 1898:  "We'll Stand By the Flag" - sheet music cover
bullet 1898-1900:  Various documents on the debate over the Philippines      (additional documents)
bullet 1899:  "Aguinaldo's Case Against the United States," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 514 (September)
bullet 1899:  "The Battery of Imperialism" - political cartoon by Horace Taylor in The Verdict (9/25)
bullet 1899:  “The Black Man’s Burden” - A Response to Kipling
bullet 1899:  "The Break-up of China and our Interest in It," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 84, issue 502 (August)
bullet 1899:  The British Reply to the Open Door Note (11/30)
bullet 1899:  Carl Schurz against American Imperialism
bullet 1899:  "Charity Begins at Home" - poem by X-Ray, The Colored American (3/18)
bullet 1899:  "Democracy or Militarism - speech by Jane Addams at the Chicago Liberty Meeting (4/30)
bullet 1899:  First Open Door Note (Sept.)
bullet 1899:  "Home Burdens of Uncle Sam" - poem by Anne Manning Comfort (a parody of Kipling's poem) - doc. #4 on the page
bullet 1899:  "Imperialism" - political cartoon from The Verdict July 24, 1899 by C. Gordon Moffat
bullet 1899:  "Is He to Be a Despot?" - political cartoon about President McKinley
bullet 1899:  "A Letter from the Filipino Junta" - Galicano Apacible, The Public 2 (6/10)
bullet 1899:  “Liberty Halts American Butchery in the Phillipines" - political cartoon
bullet 1899:  "Lightening the White Man's Burden" - advertisement by Pear's Soap in McClure's Magazine (Oct.)
bullet 1899:  The Open Door Note submitted by U.S. Secretary of State, John Hay (8/6)
bullet 1899:  "The "Open Door" Policy in the Philippines" - Frank D. Pavey in The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 516 (November)
bullet 1899:  “A Perfect Hailstorm of Bullets”- A Black Sergeant Remembers the Battle of San Juan Hill
bullet 1899:  "The Philippine Tangle" - William James in the Boston Evening Transcript (3/1)
bullet 1899:  Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League
bullet 1899:  “The Poor Man’s Burden”- Labor Lampoons Kipling
bullet 1899:  A Puerto Rican Farmer Laments U.S. Control of the Island
bullet 1899:  The Russian Reply to the Open Door Note (12/18)
bullet 1899:  "The Shame of Imperialism" - Frances E. Russell, The Woman's Journal 30 (3/18)
bullet 1899?:  The War Prayer - Mark Twain
bullet 1899:  "The White Man's Burden" - poem by Rudyard Kipling
bullet 1899:  "The White Man's Burden" - political cartoon in The Detroit Journal (2/18)
bullet 1899-91:  Diary Entries of George Percival Schriven - war in the Philippines
bullet late 1890s:  "The Light of the World" - political cartoon on imperialism in The Ram's Horn (at the end of the page
bullet 1900:  "America's Share in a Partition of China" -  Demetrius C. Boulger, North American Review (Aug.)
bullet 1900:  "America's Treatment of the Chinese" -  Charles F. Holder, North American Review (Aug.)
bullet 1900:  "The American Policy in China" - Charles W. Dilke The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 522 (May)
bullet 1900:  Anti-Imperialist Homecoming - Mark Twain (10/6 & 15)
bullet 1900:  Democratic Party Platform            Republican Party Platform
bullet 1900:  "The effect of imperialism upon the negro race. Ably set out by a colored man. (Written by Kelly Miller, professor of mathematics in Howard University, Washington, DC for the Springfield Republican. Boston, Mass. Published by the N. E. Anti-Imperialist League" - broadside
bullet 1900:  "The Filipino's Vain Hope of Independence" - Marrion WIlcox The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 526 (Sept.)
bullet 1900:  "The Growth of Our Foreign Policy" - Richard Olney (March)
bullet 1900:  "Imperialism: America's Historic Policy" - W. A. Peffer The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 525 (Aug.)
bullet 1900:  "In Support of an American Empire" - speech by Senator Albert J. Beveridge (IN)
bullet 1900:  "Our Chinese policy. What we should forfeit in declaring war. 'Most favored nation' treaties to be preserved at all costs - Horace N. Fisher - leaflet
bullet 1900:  "Our Pacific Opportunity" -  John Barrett, Overland Monthly (Feb.)
bullet 1900:  "Our Rights in China" -  Mark B. Dunnell, Atlantic Monthly (Aug.)
bullet 1900:  Speech by William Jennings Bryan to the Democratic National Convention, "The Paralyzing Influence of Imperialism
bullet 1900:  "War as a Moral Medicine" - Goldwin Smith The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 86, issue 518 (Dec.)
bullet 1901:  "The American Flag" - Mark Twain
bullet 1901:  "Democracy and Efficiency" - Woodrow Wilson The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 87, issue 521 (Mar.)
bullet 1901:  "To The Person Sitting in Darkness" - Mark Twain
bullet 1901:  Platt Amendment
bullet 1902:  Crosby on Kipling - A Parody of “The White Man’s Burden”
bullet 1903:  "Exit Anti-Imperialism," The Independent 55 (9/24)
bullet 1903:  Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (11/18) - Panama Canal
bullet 1903:  Platt Amendment
bullet 1904:  Convention Between the United States and the Republic of Panama
bullet 1904:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1904:  "I rather like that imported affair" - political cartoon by Grant Hamilton from Puck (9/21)
bullet 1904:  "The Panama Affair of 1903: Roosevelt--Hay Diplomacy," Open Letter to John Hay, By D. H. Chamberlain (From the New York Times (10/2)
bullet 1904:  "The Philippine Conquest" -  Edgar Lee Masters From The New Star Chamber and Other Essays (Chicago: Hammersmark Publishing Co., 1904)
bullet 1904:  "The Religious Argument" - William Jennings Bryan, The Commoner (12/30)
bullet 1904:  The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine - Theodore Roosevelt’s Annual Message to Congress (12/6)
bullet 1905:  "Filipino Opinion of Reconcentration," El Renacimiento (6/30)
bullet 1905:  Taft-Katsura Agreement
bullet 1905:  Treaty of Portsmouth
bullet 1906:  "The White Man's Burden" - William Jennings Bryan -  Address at the Independence Day Banquet of the American Society of London (7/4)
bullet 1907:  Gentlemen's Agreement excerpt
bullet 1909:  "The Threat of Japan" - Theodore Roosevelt
bullet 1911:  "Patriotism--A Menace to Liberty" - Emma Goldman
bullet 1911:  Rickover Clears Spain of the Maine Explosion
bullet 1912:  "Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine" - Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
bullet 1912:  "Dollar Diplomacy" - President Taft
bullet 1913:  President Wilson's Address to Congress on Mexico (9/27)
bullet 1913:  "Repudiation of 'Dollar Diplomacy'" - Woodrow Wilson in the American Journal of International Law, Vol. VII
bullet 1914:  Bandits or Patriots -- Documents from Charlemagne Péralte
bullet 1914:  John Reed’s “What About Mexico” - The United States and the Mexican Revolution
bullet 1914?:  "What the United States Has Fought For" - political cartoon on immigration
bullet 1914:  Woodrow Wilson's Speech to Congress Regarding Mexico (The Tampico Affair)
bullet 1915:  “A Danger for All Latin American Countries,” Letters from Venustiano Carranza
bullet 1915:  "There is hard sledding ahead for the missionaries" - political cartoon in the Columbus Dispatch
bullet 1916:  “Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention” - Wilson and Lansing on the U.S. Invasion of Mexico
bullet 1919-20:  “The People Were Very Peaceable” - The U.S. Senate Investigates the Haitian Occupation
bullet 1920:  "Self-Determining Haiti" - report by James Weldon Johnson in The Nation (8/28)
bullet 1920:  “The Truth about Haiti - An NAACP Investigation”
bullet 1921:  "Hearing the Truth About Haiti," By Helena Hill Weed, The Nation 113 (11/9)
bullet 1921:  "Pan-Americanism," By Scott Nearing, Chapter 15 of The American Empire (New York: Rand School of Social Science, 1921)
bullet 1922:  "Haiti under American Occupation" - Ernest H. Gruening, The Century 103 (April)
bullet 1925?:  American Imperialism: The Menace of the Greatest Capitalist World Power By Jay Lovestone (Chicago: Workers Party of America, n.d. [1925])
bullet 1926:  “Conclusions and Recommendations by the Committee of Six Disinterested Americans" - Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)
bullet 1927:  "Imperialism Is Easy" - John Dewey in The New Republic 50 (3/23)
bullet 1927:  Peace of Tipitapa

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing