Primary Source Documents
bullet 1919 Chicago Black Sox Baseball Cards
bullet The African American Odyssey (Library of Congress)
bullet America Declares War on Germany, 1917 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet American Leaders Speak:  Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election (LOC)
bullet America's Secret War--American Intervention In The Russian Civil War, 1918-1920
bullet America's Wars--World War I
bullet American Cultural History of the 20c:  1910-1919
bullet American Leaders Speak- Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election, 1918-1920
bullet Armistice, 1918 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The Bisbee Deportation of 1917
bullet Black Military Service in World War I
bullet Choctaw Code Talkers of WWI
bullet Dear Home...Letters from World War I
bullet Death of an Air Ace, 1918 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The Doughboy Center
bullet D. W. Griffith
bullet D. W. Griffith (PBS-American Masters)
bullet Edith Bolling (Galt) Wilson (National First Ladies Library)
bullet Fighting the Flying Circus--Captain Edward V. Richenbacker
bullet Front Line:  Life in the Trenches During World War I
bullet The Great Migration (PBS)
bullet The Great War:  1914-1918 (Tom Morgan's Hellfire Corner)
bullet The Great War:  1914-1918 (University of Pittsburg)
bullet The Great War and the Shaping of the 20c (PBS)
bullet The Great War Series - The War Times Journal
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1910        1920
bullet Influenza 1918--The Worst Epidemic the U. S. Has Ever Known (American Experience series-PBS)
bullet IQ Tests Go to War—Measuring Intelligence in the Army
bullet In the American Ambulance Field Service, 1916 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The International Encyclopedia of World War I (Spartacus)
bullet I. W. W. Documents
bullet Lost Poets of the Great War
bullet Major Events of:  1914    1915    1916    1917    1918    1919   
bullet Map-->"The Alliance System and the Start of World War I" (interactive)
bullet Map-->"Europe after the Versailles Treaty"
bullet Map-->"Wars and Atrocities in the First Quarter of the 20c: 1900-1925"
bullet Nation's Forum Recordings: 1918-1920
bullet The Peace Treaties of 1919-1923 (UK)
bullet The People's Century:  The Killing Fields (1914-1918) - PBS
bullet The Peoples' Century:  The Lost Peace (1919-1935) - PBS
bullet The Peoples' Century:  On the Line (1908-1945) - PBS
bullet The Peoples' Century:  Red Flag (1917-1940) - PBS
bullet Political Cartoons on the League of Nations (Authentic History)
bullet Political Cartoons on World War I
bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) -- 1916     1920
bullet Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election (LOC)
bullet Red Scare
bullet Relevance - The Quarterly Journal of the Great War Society
bullet Signing the Treaty of Versailles, 1919 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet "Typhoid Mary" -- The Most Dangerous Woman in America (NOVA)
bullet U-Boat Attack, 1916 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The Unknown Soldier Comes Home, 1921 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Votes for Women's Suffrage:  1850-1920 (LOC)
bullet Woodrow Wilson (The American Experience, PBS)
bullet Woodrow Wilson - POTUS site
bullet Woodrow Wilson - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet "Woodrow Wilson's Administration" - Paul Dean (essay)
bullet WW I:  Thirty-Three Thousand Women Were There
bullet "World War I and Postwar Society:  African-Americans" (LOC)
bullet World War I Cartoons
bullet World War I in Children's Literature
bullet World War I Document Archive
bullet World War I Letters
bullet World War I Photo Archive
bullet World War I Sheet Music
bullet World War I Songs and American Patriotic Music

 
                                           Web Links
                                  
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
 
bullet 1876-1920:  Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876-1920 - chart
bullet 1906:  "ROOT WARNED GERMANY?; London Times Sees a Hint in the Secretary's Kansas City Speech" - NY Times (11/22)
bullet 1914:  "Telegram from the Secretary of State to the American ambassador at London (12/26)
bullet 1914:  Telegram from Kaiser Wilhelm II to President Wilson (8/10)
bullet 1914:  "U. S. Policy on Loans to the Belligerents" - Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to President Wilson (9/10)
bullet 1914:  U.S. Statement on the Status of Armed Merchant Vessels (9/19)
bullet 1914:  Weeks v. United States
bullet 1914-15:  Political Development of US Neutrality Policy - discussions between President Wilson & Secretaries Bryan and Lansing
bullet 1914-15:  U.S. Policy on War Loans to Belligerents, 1914 -1915
bullet 1914-15:  US Protests Against Maritime Warfare - correspondence between William Jennings Bryan, Secretary of State and Walter Hines Page, US Ambassador to Great Britain
bullet 1915:  “This Is How It Was” - An American Nurse in France During World War I
bullet 1915:  "American Protest over the Sinking of the Lusitania" - William Jennings Bryan
bullet 1915:  "Americanism and the Foreign Born" - speech by Woodrow Wilson (5/10)
bullet 1915:  “Get the Rope!” Anti-German Violence in World War I-era Wisconsin
bullet 1915:  “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier”- song lyrics
bullet 1915:  Jane Addams Critiques "The Birth of a Nation" in The New York Evening Post (3/13)
bullet 1915:  Just Doing Our Job, Ma’am - Defending the State Police
bullet 1915:  "Preparedness: The Road to Universal Slaughter" - Emma Goldman (excerpts)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's Change of Attitude on War Loans (8/26)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's First Lusitania Note to Germany (5/13)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's First Warning to the Germans (2/10)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's Protest to the Germans (7/21)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's Speech, "America Must be a Special Example" (5/10)
bullet 1915:  President Wilson's Speech, "Peace Without Victory"
bullet 1915-16:  The House-Grey Memorandum, October 8 & 11, 1915 - February 22, 1916
bullet 1916:  “The Failure of German-Americanism” - Reinhold Niebuhr Blames German Immigrants for Their Problems During WWI
bullet 1916:  "Moral substitute for war. International federation of nations under a cosmopolitan constitution. How the nations of the world could protect themselves against foreign invasion without the use of armies and navies. Omaha, NE" - broadside
bullet 1916:  President Wilson on the Sussex Case (4/19)
bullet 1916-21:  Seven Letters from the Great Migration
bullet 1916:  "Strike Against War" - speech by Helen Keller at Carnegie Hall
bullet 1916:  The War and the Workers by Rosa Luxemburg (Junius Pamphlet)
bullet 1917:  Address of President Wilson to the Senate (1/22)
bullet 1917:  Address to the jury - Emma Goldman, anarchist (7/9)
bullet 1917:  Association of Army Nurses of the Civil War Letter to U.S. House Judiciary Committee (5/1)
bullet 1917:  “Don[’]t Have to Mister Every Little White Boy. . .” - Black Migrants Write Home
bullet 1917:  "A Historian Quits" -  Charles Beard Attacks World War I Hysteria in The New Republic (12/29)
bullet 1917:  Housewives in Uniform - Domesticity as Military Duty
bullet 1917:  "I Want You for the U. S. Army!" - recruitment poster
bullet 1917:  “It Has No Popular Support” - Robert M. La Follette Votes Against a Declaration of War
bullet 1917:  Japan's Reaction to the Zimmerman Note (March)
bullet 1917:  "Keep 'em going!" - Anti-German poster
bullet 1917:  Letters from the Great Migration
bullet 1917:  "One Hundred Million Soldiers" - speech by Frank Vanderlip
bullet 1917:  “The Negro and the War” - Reports in African-American Newspapers
bullet 1917:  No Conscription League Manifesto
bullet 1917:  “Nobody Would Eat Kraut”- Lola Gamble Clyde on Anti-German Sentiment in Idaho During World War I
bullet 1917:  Patriotic Housekeeping - Good Housekeeping Recruits Kitchen Soldiers
bullet 1917:  Petition, Anti-Suffrage Party of New York - World War I, ca. 1917
bullet 1917:  President Wilson's War Message to Congress (4/2)
bullet 1917:  Randolph Bourne Vents His Animus Against War
bullet 1917:  "Remember! The Flag of Liberty! Support It!" (poster)
bullet 1917:  Robert "Fightin' Bob" LaFollette defends free speech in wartime - Washington, DC (10/6)
bullet 1917:  “Sir I Will Thank You with All My Heart” - Seven Letters from the Great Migration
bullet 1917:  Senator Norris Opposes U.S. Entry into the War (4/4)
bullet 1917:  Speech Against Conscription And War by Emma Goldman, anarchist
bullet 1917:  "Suffragists' Machine Perfected in All States Under Mrs. Catt's Rule," New York Times (4/29)
bullet 1917:  Victory on the Menu - Recipes and Rationing
bullet 1917:  War Is “a Blessing, Not a Curse” - The Case for Why We Must Fight
bullet 1917:  “We Had to Be So Careful” - A German Farmer’s Recollections of Anti-German Sentiment in World War I
bullet 1917:  “We Tho[ugh]t State Street Would Be Heaven Itself” - Black Migrants Speak Out
bullet 1917:  The Zimmerman Note (1/19)
bullet 1917-18?:  "Be Patriotic!" - Food Administration war poster
bullet 1917-18?:  "Eat More!" - Food Administration war poster
bullet 1917-18:  Four Minute Men - Volunteer Speeches During World War I
bullet 1917-18:  Harry Truman's letters (25) during his stint as a Captain in the U. S. Army
bullet 1917-18:  Letters Home from Lloyd Maywood Staley to his wife Mary
bullet 1917-18:  Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I
bullet 1917-18?:  "Sow the Seeds of Victory!" - Food Administration war poster
bullet 1917-18?:  Women Shipyard Workers - photo
bullet 1918:  “All the Colored Women Like This Work” - Black Workers During World War I
bullet 1918:  The American's Creed (4/3)
bullet 1918:  "Back Me Or Booze Me!" - campaign advertisement by the Ohio Dry Federation
bullet 1918:  Cartooning for Victory- World War I Instructions to Artists - Committee on Public Information (CPI), Bulletin for Cartoonists
bullet 1918:  Espionage Act (5/16)
bullet 1918:  Eugene V. Deb's Canton Speech
bullet 1918:  "The Evil of Booze" - campaign advertisement by the Ohio Dry Federation
bullet 1918:  “Facts . . . Are the Only Arsenal” - Information and the War Cyclopedia in World War I (Creel Commission)
bullet 1918:  Fourteen Points - Woodrow Wilson
bullet 1918:  "I Want Saloons in Ohio!" - campaign advertisement by the Ohio Dry Federation
bullet 1918:  "If You Want to Fight--Join the Marines!" - war poster for women by Howard Chandler Christy
bullet 1918:  "In Flanders Field" - poem by Canadian Lt. Col. John McCrae
bullet 1918:  Letter from Capt. Harry Truman to his future wife Bess (11/1)
bullet 1918:  Letter to King George V from Teddy Roosevelt
bullet 1918:  “The March of the Psychos” - Measuring Intelligence in the Army
bullet 1918:  The New York Times Reports the End of the War (11/9-11)
bullet 1918:  “No Negroes Allowed” - Segregation at the Front in World War I
bullet 1918:  “Orgies of Ruthlessness” - Bishop Quayle on German Atrocities During World War I
bullet 1918:  The Origins of Puerto Rican Migration - U.S. Employment Service Bulletin
bullet 1918:  “Please, Let Me Put Him in a Macaroni Box” - The Spanish Influenza of 1918 in Philadelphia
bullet 1918:  President Wilson's Address to Congress, Analyzing German and Austrian Peace Utterances (2/11)
bullet 1918:  Puerto Rican Laborers during World War I - The Deposition of Rafael Marca>
bullet 1918:  Sedition Act
bullet 1918:  Statement made by American socialist Eugene V. Debs on September 18, 1918 upon being convicted of sedition for speaking out against the First World War
bullet 1918:  "They'll be mighty proud in Dixie of their old black Joe" - song lyrics
bullet 1918:  "Ten million fighting men needed" - Richard H. Edmonds, Editor Manufacturers Record, Baltimore. MD 5/23
bullet 1918:  "This 'made in Germany' war" -  Richard H. Edmonds, Editor Manufacturers Record, Baltimore MD 3/21 - broadside
bullet 1918:  "The Truth About Personal Liberty" - campaign advertisement by the Ohio Dry Federation
bullet 1918:  U.S. Participation in the Archangel Expedition (7/17)
bullet 1918?:  "The War and the Intellectuals" - essay by Randolph Bourne
bullet 1918-1919?:  "War is the Health of the State" - essay by Randolph Bourne (published posthumously)
bullet 1918-19:  Hot Chocolate - A World War I “Canteen Girl” Writes Home
bullet 1918-19:  “There Wasn’t a Mine Runnin’ a Lump O’ Coal” - A Kentucky Coal Miner Remembers the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
bullet 1919:  18th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution
bullet 1919:  Abrams v. United States
bullet 1919:  "Better Keep to the Old Channel" - political cartoon in the New York American (8/2)
bullet 1919:  "Bomb-erang" - political cartoon from the Baltimore American (6/21)
bullet 1919:  “Chicago and Its Eight Reasons” - Walter White Considers the Causes of the 1919 Chicago Race Riot
bullet 1919:  Chicago Race Riots - Chicago Tribune, July 30, 1919
bullet 1919:  "Close the Gate!" - political cartoon in Chicago Tribune (7/5)
bullet 1919:  "Come unto Me, Ye Opprest!" - political cartoon in the Memphis Commercial Appeal (7/5)
bullet 1919:  "Coming Ashore" - political cartoon in the Brooklyn Eagle (7/12)
bullet 1919:  “A Crowd of Howling Negroes” - The Chicago Daily Tribune Reports the Chicago Race Riot
bullet 1919:  "Curses--It Won't Explode in America" - political cartoon from the George Matthew Adams Service (10/18)
bullet 1919:  Debs v. United States
bullet 1919:  "Democrats in the World War" - A. Mitchell Palmer
bullet 1919:  Economic Consequences of the Peace - John Maynard Keynes
bullet 1919:  “Eight Hours a Day and Better Conditions”- Andrew Pido Explains His Support for the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  “An Eminently Safe Citizen”- Robert Benchley on “The Making of a Red" in The Nation (March)
bullet 1919:  “Forty-Two Cents an Hour” for Twelve to Fourteen Hours a Day - George Milkulvich Describes Work in the Clairton Mills after World War I
bullet 1919:  "Freedom of Opinion?  Sailor Wounds Pageant Spectator Disrespectful to the Flag" - Washington Post (5/9)
bullet 1919:  "The Gauntlet Flung Down" - political cartoon from the Brooklyn Eagle (6/25)
bullet 1919:  “Ghastly Deeds of Race Rioters Told” - The Chicago Defender Reports the Chicago Race Riot
bullet 1919:  "Ghosts of War" - political cartoon in The Brooklyn Eagle (7/12)
bullet 1919:  "Give Me Those Railroads!: - political cartoon in the New York World (8/16)
bullet 1919:  “God Knows More about Time Than President Wilson” - Letters against Daylight Saving
bullet 1919:  “The Hand of God” in the League of Nations - President Woodrow Wilson Presents the Treaty of Paris to the Senate (7/10)
bullet 1919:  "How's My Credit?" - political cartoon in The New American (7/12)
bullet 1919:  “I Glanced Up—The Statue of Liberty!” - Emma Goldman Describes Her Deportation in the Era of the Red Scare
bullet 1919:  "If Capital and Labor Don't Pull Together" - political cartoon from the Chicago Tribune (8/30)
bullet 1919:  "I'm a Bolshevist from the Bottom of My Feet to the Top of My Head" - Mother Jones
bullet 1919:  “Let Us Reason Together” - W. E. B. Du Bois Defends Black Resistance
bullet 1919:  Lodge Reservations on the League of Nations - Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. (8/12)
bullet 1919:  "The Making of a Red" - Robert Benchley in The Nation (3/15)
bullet 1919:  “The Men Seem To Be Pretty Well Satisfied”- John Anderson on the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  "Merry Christmas!" - political cartoon in the New York World (12/27) - prohibition
bullet 1919:  "The Missionary's Sons" - political cartoon from the Chicago Tribune (10/18)
bullet 1919:  “Our Reason for Being” - A. Philip Randolph in Messenger (August)
bullet 1919:  "A Nervous Wreck" - political cartoon in the Literary Digest  (7/5)
bullet 1919:  "The Patriotic American" - political cartoon from the Chicago Tribune (6/28)
bullet 1919:  "Revise Taxes" - William Gibbs McAdoo
bullet 1919:  “Sailor Wounds Spectator Disrespectful of Flag”- The Red Scare in The Washington Post (5/7)
bullet 1919:  "Say, Do I Look Sick?" - political cartoon from Farm Life (7/15)
bullet 1919:  “Says Lax Conditions Caused Race Riots” - Chicago Daily News and Carl Sandburg Report the 1919 Chicago Race Riot
bullet 1919:  Schenck v. United States
bullet 1919:  "Striking Back!" - political cartoon in the New York Evening World (9/27)
bullet 1919:  "This May be a Better Goddess than Liberty--But We'll Have to be Shown" - political cartoon in The New York Herald (8/9)
bullet 1919:  "Treat 'Em Rough!" - political cartoon originally from the George Matthew Adams Syndicate (8/16)
bullet 1919:  Treaty of Versailles
bullet 1919:  Treaty of Versailles speech by President Wilson, delivered in joint session of Congress (1/8)
bullet 1919:  "Turn on the Hose" - political cartoon from the New York Evening Telegram (8/30)
bullet 1919:  Various Documents on the Chicago Race Riot      (additional documents)
bullet 1919:  Versailles  PeaceTreaty
bullet 1919:  Volstead Act
bullet 1919:  The Volstead Act and Related Prohibition Documents (linked at the bottom of the page)
bullet 1919:  “We Did Not Have Enough Money” -  George Miller’s Testimony about the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  “We Do Not Understand the Foreigners” - John J. Martin Testifies on the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  “We Ought to Have the Right to Belong to the Union”- Frank Smith Speaks on the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  "Women's Votes" - political cartoon from the St. Louis Republic (6/28)
bullet 1919:  Woodrow Wilson's "League of Nations" Speech
bullet 1919:  "Workers!" - political cartoon in the New York Evening World (12/27)
bullet 1919:  “They Are Mostly All Foreigners on Strike”- Joseph Fish Speaks on the 1919 Steel Strike
bullet 1919:  19th. Amendment to the U. S. Constitution
bullet 1920:  "The Case Against the 'Reds'" - A. Palmer Mitchell in Forum (1920), 63:173- 185
bullet 1922:  Peace and Bread in Time of War - Jane Addams
bullet 1921:  Commentary on the Significance of the Zimmerman Note
bullet 1921:  US Peace Treaty with Austria (8/24)
bullet 1921:  US Peace Treaty with Germany (8/25)
bullet 1921:  US Peace Treaty with Hungary (8/29)
bullet 1923:  From Pinafores to Politics - Mrs. J. Borden Harriman  (Chapter XIII)
bullet 1938:  "I Did My Bit for Democracy" - WWI veteran interviewed by a WPA worker
bullet 1938:  "Reminiscences of a Rebel" - interview of a conscientious objector to a WPA workers during the 1930s
bullet 1944:  The Gentleman from Massachusetts: Henry Cabot Lodge - Karl Schriftgeisser

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing