• textbook --> pp. 600 - 610.
  • doc. reader --> pp. 60 - 664; 66 - 68.
Terms :
* Immanuel Kant   (pics) * Candide (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
* Dare to Know! * Denis Diderot   (pic1)
* Bernard de Fontenelle * The Encyclopédie
* skepticism * David Hume   (pic1)
* secularization * Treatise on Human Nature
* Pierre Bayle  (pic1) * physiocrat
* Essay Concerning Human Understanding * François Quesnay  (pic1)
* tabula rasa * laissez-faire
* philosophe * Adam Smith (1)   (2)   (pic1)
* Charles de Secondat, the Baron de
  Montesquieu   (pic1)
* The Wealth of Nations
* The Spirit of the Laws * Law of Supply and Demand
* François Marie Arouet, Voltaire  (pic1) * Labor Theory of Value
* deism (1)  (2) * "Invisible Hand"
* Crush the infamous thing!
  1. What were some of the major intellectual changes that led to the Enlightenment?
  2. Why did Immanuel Kant, when asked "What is the Enlightenment?" respond, "Dare to know!"?
  3. List the major characteristics of the Enlightenment.
  4. How was the spirit of the 18c Enlightenment drawn from the scientific and intellectual revolution of the 17c?
  5. What was the role of the philosophes during the Enlightenment?  How were they different from the great thinkers of the earlier centuries?
  6. Create a CHART which compares the ideas and contributions made to the thought of the Enlightenment by Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau [leave a space to fill in the information for Rousseau when you do assignment #2 below].  Be sure to include a list of their written works and the themes of these works.
  7. What made Montesquieu and Voltaire Anglophiles?
  8. What contributions did The Encyclopédie made to the development of new ideas during the Enlightenment?
  9. Who were the philosophes?
  10. What were the key elements of Quesnay's economic principles?  How did they challenge established mercantilist policies?
  11. Identify the major points made by Adam Smith in his book, The Wealth of Nations.
  12. How were the physiocrats a reflection of the larger intellectual trends of the Enlightenment?

                          ASSIGNMENT 2:

Terms :
* Paul d'Holbach * Emile (1)  (2)
* atheism * Mary Wollstonecraft  (pic1)
* Marie-Jean de Condorcet   (pic1) * Vindication of the Rights of Woman
* Jean-Jacques Rousseau   (pic1 * salon(1)  (2)
* Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality
  of Mankind
* Madame Geoffrin (1)  (2) 
* The Social Contract * Julie de Lespinasse
* General Will * Freemasons
  1. What were the views of Paul d' Holbach?  [answer the ques. 2 on p. 68 of the doc. book].  Why did they shock may of his intellectual contemporaries?
  2. What were Condorcert's views on slavery and human progress?  [answer the ques. on p. 89 of the doc. book]
  3. Identify the major ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau [add them to the chart created above].  In what ways were his ideas unique, differing dramatically from his predecessors?  [answer the ques. on p. 82 of the doc. book].
  4. Why could Rousseau be claimed as an intellectual soul mate of both the liberal strain and the despotic/totalitarian tendencies in Western political thinking?
  5. What role did women play in the development of the Enlightenment?
  6. What were the salons?  What role did they play in facilitating the intellectual atmosphere of the Enlightenment?
  7. What arguments does Mary Wollstonecraft make on behalf of the rights of women?  [answer the ques. 1-3 on p. 107 of the doc. book]

                         ASSIGNMENT 3:

  • textbook --> pp. 617 - 627.
  • doc. reader --> pp. 83 - 84.
  • CDs --> samplings of music by Bach, Handel, Beethovan, Haydn, and Mozart.
  • Powerpoint presentation on "Rococo Art."
Terms :
  1. What were the characteristics of the Rococo style of painting and architecture?
  2. Why did Neoclassicism continue to flourish side-by-side with the Rococo style during the Enlightenment?
  3. How did the world of the composer change and evolve during the Enlightenment period?
  4. How did the Enlightenment influence the growing popularity of history?  How did Edward Gibbon reflect this change?
  5. What is the differences between high culture and popular culture?
  6. What was the main purpose of the privately endowed secondary schools of the 18c?  What was their curriculum like?  Why did some philosophes object to this course of study?
  7. What were the four broad categories of crimes in the 18c?  Identify the various penal reforms proposed by Cesare Beccaria in his work, On Crimes and Punishments?  [answer ques. 1 & 2 on p. 86 in the doc. book]
  8. Why were Carnivals and other festivals so popular in the 18c?  What was their real purpose?
  9. Why did the elites in Western Europe abandon popular culture to the lower classes by the 18c?
  10. Why were there more children in primary schools in Protestant countries than in Catholic ones during the 18c?

                          ASSIGNMENT 4:

  • textbook --> pp. 627 - 632.
Terms :
* Edict on Idle Institutions * Confraternities
* Joseph II (Aus.)  (pic1) * Pietism
* Toleration Patent of 1781 * Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf
* Ashkenazi Jews * John Wesley  (pic1)
* Sephardic Jews * Methodism
* pogrom * evangelism
* revivalism  
  1. What were the political and economic purposes of the established Christian churches in the 18c?
  2. What was the role of the parish church in 18c society?
  3. What was the position of the Jesuit order in 18c Western Europe?  Why were they resented by the political powers of the day?
  4. Why did the Catholic monarchs of Europe win control over their churches?
  5. Why did the power of the papacy decline dramatically by the mid-18c?
  6. How did Emperor Joseph II of Austria take control of the Catholic Church in his kingdom as well as create an atmosphere of religious toleration throughout the Austrian Empire?
  7. What were the differences between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews?  How were they treated in Western Europe during the 18c?
  8. What was Pietism?  Why did it emerge in the 18c?
  9. How did Pietism lay the groundwork for the religious revival movement of the latter 18c, especially in England?
  10. Why did John Wesley's Methodism appeal most to the lower classes of English society?  What were they looking for that the traditional Anglican Church could not provide?