• textbook --> pp. 776 - 783.
Terms :
Napoleon III Giuseppi Mazzini
Baron Haussmann Count Camillo di Cavour
Crimean War *  Young Italy
Battle of Balaklava *  Red Shirts
Treaty of Paris [1856] Giuseppi Garibaldi
Risorgimento King Victor Emmanuel II
  1. How did France's economy grow under Napoleon III?
  2. Why did Napoleon III "Hausmannize" Paris?
  3. Identify the political institutions and the characteristics of political life in the Second French Republic.
  4. Why did Napoleon III liberalize his regime after 1859?  What form did this liberalization take?
  5. What kind of opposition to Napoleon III developed?
  6. Why did the European nations go to war in the Crimea in 1854?  What were the motivations of each participant?
  7. What were the immediate and long-term results of the Crimean War?
  8. What was the state of political affairs in Italy after the Revolutions of 1848?
  9. What were the political, economic, and social views of Count Cavour?
  10. Identify the steps that Cavour took to unite Italy.  How did he differ from Mazzini in his program for Italian unification?
  11. How did Cavour react to Garibaldi's successes?
  12. What role did Napoleon III and the Pope play in the unification of Italy?
  13. How was Italian unification finally completed?
  14. What problems still troubled Italy after unification?

                          ASSIGNMENT 2:

  • textbook --> pp. 783 - 789;  841 - 842.
Terms :
Zollverein Reichstag
Otto von Bismarck Battle of Sedan
Realpolitik Franco-Prussian War
North German Confederation Kulturkampf
Austro-Prussian War Kaiser Wilhelm II
Bundesrat *  Social Democratic Party
*  "Blood and Iron"
  1. What factors worked against German unification?  What factors aided the process?
  2. What was Bismarck's political outlook?  Describe the nature and outcome of his dispute with the liberals in the Prussian parliament.  What was the meaning of his famous "blood and iron" statement?
  3. How did Bismarck succeed in ousting Austria from a position of leadership among the German states?
  4. Describe the membership, structure, and constitution of the North German Confederation.
  5. What did Bismarck hope to accomplish by a war with France?  How was he able to precipitate such a war?  Why did France lose?
  6. How did the Franco-Prussian War affect France?  Germany?
  7. How was Bismarck's approach to German unification different from Cavour's approach to Italian unification?  How was it similar?
  8. What was the nature and results of Bismarck's conflict with the Catholic Church?   the Social Democrats?  What was the motivation behind his social insurance program?
  9. In what direction did Germany seem to be moving under Wilhelm II in the years before 1914?

                         ASSIGNMENT 3:

  • textbook --> pp. 789 - 793;  842 - 843;  865 - 866.
Terms :
Dual Monarchy Revolution of 1905 [Russia]
Compromise of 1867 October Manifesto
Emperor Franz Joseph II Duma
Lajos [Louis] Kossuth V. I. Lenin
Magyars Mensheviks
Tsar Alexander II Bolsheviks
mir *  Slavophile
zemstvo Act of Emancipation of 1861   (2)
Alexander Herzen Count Sergei Witte
*  populism Tsar Alexander III
"Bloody Sunday" (1)   (2) Tsar Nicholas II
Father Gapon Social Democratic Labour Party
*  "Arsenal of Autocracy" Russo-Japanese War [1904-5]
  1. In an age of growing nationalism, what held the Austrian Empire together in the middle of the 19c?
  2. What did the recent wars in which Austria participated demonstrate about the Empire?
  3. What were the attitudes of the Magyar minority in the Austrian Empire?
  4. Why was the Dual Monarchy created in 1867?  Was it a satisfactory solution to the Austro-Hungarian Empire's nationalistic problem?
  5. How did the autocracy in Russia differ from absolutism in Western Europe?
  6. How did serfdom in Russia differ from and resemble American slavery?  What did the Act of Emancipation of 1861 accomplish?
  7. Identify the legal and judicial reforms introduced by Alexander II and the steps taken in the direction of self-government.
  8. How did the Russian revolutionaries react to the reforms of Alexander II?
  9. What changes took place under the reign of Alexander III?  What was "Russification?"  Why was this policy pursued by the Tsarist state?
  10. Why did Russia remain politically and economically backward as compared to Western Europe by the beginning of the 20c?
  11. How did industrialization change Russia's social structure?
  12. How did Lenin adapt Marxist theories to suit conditions in Russia?  How did this "Bolshevik" theory differ from that of the "Mensheviks?"
  13. What caused the Russian Revolution of 1905?  Why did it fail?

                          ASSIGNMENT 4:

  • textbook --> pp. 793 - 795;  838 - 841.
Terms :
"Victorian Consensus" ["Age
   of Equipoise"]
Education Act of 1870 [Br.]
Great Exposition of 1851 Daniel O'Connell
William Gladstone Irish Home Rule
Benjamin Disraeli Parliamentary Act of 1911
  1. What was the "Victorian Consensus?"  How did it shape social relationships in mid-19c Britain?
  2. Compare and contrast British Liberal and British Conservatives in the mid-to late 19c.  To what extent did both political parties' political agendas and strategies change during the course of the latter 19c?
  3. Why did state intervention in the economy and in social relationships become increasingly acceptable to the British in the last quarter of the 19c?
  4. What steps were taken to extend suffrage between the years 1852 to 1918 in Britain?  Of what significance were the reforms of the Liberal government after 1906?
  5. What caused the conservative revival of the 1870s in Britain?
  6. Why did Irish Home Rule become such an important political concern in late 19c Britain?
  7. Why was the British Labour Party created?  How did it differ from socialist parties on the European continent?
  8. What was the significance of the Parliamentary Act of 1911?

                         ASSIGNMENT 5:

Terms :
Paris Commune Emile Zola
Marshal MacMahon J 'Accuse
Third French Republic   Timeline Theodor Herzl
General Georges Boulanger Zionism
Dreyfus Affair *  pogroms
Georges Clemenceau  
  1. Why did right-wing conservatives fail to establish a monarchy in France after 1870?
  2. Of what significance was the Paris Commune in the formation of the Third French Republic?
  3. Why was the Paris Commune forcibly repressed by the French republican government?
  4. With what major problems was the Third French Republic occupied in the years 1871 to 1914?  How successfully did it cope with them?
  5. Why did the Dreyfus Affair have such a profound impact on French society in the 1890s?
  6. Describe the situation of attitudes toward European Jews in the 19c.
  7. What was Zionism?  What role did Theodore Herzl play in the development of this concept?