- textbook --> 570 - 583.
- doc. reader --> pp. 31 - 34; 50 - 52.
- Make a list of the major causes of the Scientific Revolution.
- What was the old Ptolemaic conception of the universe?
- What was the Copernican view of the universe? How did it
differ from Ptolemy's? Why was it so controversial?
- Identify the scientific theories of Brahe and Kepler.
- How did Kepler's views challenge the theological assumptions of
the Catholic Church?
- With the use of a telescope constructed by himself from an earlier
Dutch model, what did Galileo observe/discover in the heavens?
- How did Galileo undermine Aristotle's ideas about motion?
- Why was Galileo condemned by the Inquisition in 1633? What
was the outcome of this condemnation for Galileo? for science in
- How did Sir Isaac Newton build upon the work of his predecessors?
- What do we mean by the Newtonian world-machine? How did
Newton arrive at this conception?
- Why do you think that many historians of science consider Sir
Isaac Newton's Law of Gravitation to be "the greatest achievement of
the human mind"?
- Evaluate the validity of the following statement: The
revolution accomplished from Copernicus to Newton was the great
spiritual adjustment that modern civilization had to make.
- textbook --> pp. 588 - 598.
- doc. reader --> pp. 42 - 44; 47 -
- What method of arriving at eternal
truths did René
Descartes take? What assumptions did he make as he began his
- What dualism was inherent in Descartes'
conception of reality?
- [doc. on pg. 591 of your textbook]--> Compare
Descartes' principles to Newton's rules of reasoning. What are
- Why was Descartes considered the founder of
- What were Francis Bacon's views regarding the
human pursuit of knowledge, the methods of science, and the purposes
to which science should be applied?
- How did his methodology differ from that of
- Over which issues did science and religion
clash during the First Scientific Revolution?
- Briefly discuss the ideas expressed by Blaise
Pascal and Benedict de Spinoza concerning the nature of God, the
universe, and scientific methods.
- How did governments begin to "tap science in
the service of the state"? Why did they do this in the 17c?
- Why was it that most of the scientific thinkers
came from Protestant countries?
- What was the general spirit that was common to
all of the personalities of the First Scientific Revolution?
- List the long-term repercussions of the First
Scientific Revolution for the West and for the rest of the world.
- textbook --> pp. 584 - 586; 589.
- Create a CHART that illustrates the medical theories of Galen,
Paracelsus, Vesalius, and Harvey.
- How did Harvey's ideas lay the groundwork for modern physiology?
- What position did Mary Cavendish have in the world of the new
science of the 17c? Why was she typical of French and English
women of the upper class at this time?
- Why were 14% of all German astronomers women in the late 17c and
- What contributions were made to the world of science by Maria
Sibylla Merian and Maria Winkelmann?
- What were the primary arguments by men about a woman's role in
science or in any profession during the Scientific Revolution?
Why was William Harvey typical of this male view?
- What was Spinoza's argument for the "natural" inferiority of women
to men [refer to the doc. on pg. 589 of your textbk.]?
- How was male-dominated science asked to "prove" male social
dominance over women?
- How did male physicians eventually destroy the profession of
female midwifery by the early 18c? Why did they do this?