bullet 1848 - The Course of Events and 19th-Century Liberalism
bullet Bismarck
bullet Bismarck Memorial
bullet Cavour, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy
bullet A Chronology of Russian History:  The Imperial Period (1689-1917)
bullet The Constitutional Structure of Prussia After 1850 - chart
bullet The Crimean War
bullet The Crimean War, 1853-1856 - documents
bullet The Crimean War, 1854-1856
bullet "The Crimean War" - lecture outline from MIT
bullet Daniel O'Connell (Spartacus Site)
bullet The Encyclopedia of the 1848 Revolutions
bullet "Enfranchising Women: The Politics of Women's Suffrage in Europe 1789-1945" - tutorial with documents and other resources
bullet Europe After the Congress of Berlin - Map (1878)
bullet The Franco-Prussian War:  1870-1871
bullet Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (biography)
bullet The German 1848 Revolution: A German Perspective
bullet "The Great Powers and the 'Eastern Question'" - lecture by Stephen W. Soward
bullet Great Power Politics:  1870s
bullet The Heritage of Bismarck
bullet The History of Italy:  1846-1848
bullet The History of Schleswig-Holstein
bullet The Hohenzollerns:  Genealogical Chart (Brandenburg/Prussia)
bullet The House of Habsburgs - Lorraine:  Genealogical Chart
bullet The House of Saxe-Coburg-Windsor Genealogical Chart (England)
bullet Imperial Age Germany:  1871-1918
bullet IRITH: Irish Resources in the Humanities
bullet Louis Napoleon III (biography)
bullet Map-->"Centers of Revolution:  1848-1858"
bullet Map-->Labeling Self-Quiz-->Central Europe - Kagan text site
bullet Map-->"Unification of Italy to 1860"
bullet Marx & Engels' Writings
bullet "Marx and History"
bullet Marxism Page
bullet Mass Politics and the Revolutions of 1848
bullet Music and Nationalism
bullet Nationalism and the Decline of Cosmopolitanism
bullet "Nationalism in Hungary, 1848-1867" - lecture by Stephen W. Sowards
bullet Nationalism Links
bullet The Nationalism Project
bullet Otto von Bismarck and the Second German Empire
bullet The Outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War
bullet The Paris Commune, 1871
bullet People of Action During the 19c
bullet The Process of German Unification
bullet "The Prussian Wars of Unification" - lecture from MIT
bullet "Revolution and Reaction:  1848"
bullet The Revolutions of 1848 
bullet Revolutions of 1848 in Europe and Italy
bullet The Risorgimento
bullet The Romanov Dynasty:  Genealogical Chart (Russia)
bullet The Siege and Commune of Paris:  1870-1871
bullet The Spanish Bourbons:  Genealogical Chart
bullet Toward the Unification of Germany - Map (1740-1871)
bullet The Unification of Italy - Map (1850s-1870s)
bullet "The Western Traditions" video series on line - The Annenburg Foundation
bullet Zionism (Jewish Virtual Library)

                             How to read a primary source document
Why Study History Through Primary Sources

bullet 1772:  Essay on the Origin of Language - Johann Gottfried Herder
bullet 1784:  Materials for the Philosophy of the History of Mankind - Johann Gottfried Herder
bullet mid-19c:  G. W. F. Hegel On the State
bullet mid-19c:  Impact of the Great Man - Thomas Carlyle
bullet 1806:  To the German Nation - Johann Gottlieb Fichte   
bullet 1808:  "The Shootings of May 3, 1808" - painting by Goya
bullet 1808:  Address to the German Nation - Johann Gottlieb Fichte
bullet 1831:  General Instructions for the Members of Young Italy - Giuseppi Mazzini
bullet 1836:  Justice for Ireland - Daniel O'Connell
bullet 1840:  Victor Emmanuel II - Speech to Parliament
bullet 1841:  Deutschland, Deutschland über alles - German national anthem (Germany, Germany, Over All)
bullet 1844-1858:  Giuseppe Mazzini - The Duties of Man
bullet 1846-61:  Documents on Italian Unification
bullet 1848:  Statuto of 1848
bullet 1848-1871:  Documents of German Unification
bullet 1848-49:  various documents on the uprisings in Hungary
bullet 1848:  Allocution of Pope Pius IX - about Italian Unification
bullet 1848:  The Communist Manifesto - Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
bullet 1848:  Condition of the July Monarchy, 1830-1848 - François Guizot
bullet 1848:  Constitution of the Kingdom of Sardinia
bullet 1848:  Constitutional Proposals of the Vienna Reading Club
bullet 1848:  Documents of the 1848 Revolution in France
bullet 1848:  An English eye-witness's account of the June days - Sir Edmund Frankland
bullet 1848:  February Days in Paris - assorted documents by observers of the event
bullet 1848:  The French Revolution in 1848 - Percy B. St. John
bullet 1848:  The Heidelberg Declaration
bullet 1848:  The June Uprising - Alexis de Tocqueville
bullet 1848:  The June Uprising - Karl Marx
bullet 1848:  Louis Blanc's Program (3/20)
bullet 1848:  The Mainz Petition
bullet 1848:  Manifesto of the Berlin People's Election Committee
bullet 1848:  The Manifesto of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
bullet 1848:  The Mannheim Petition
bullet 1848:  The Mannheim Petition
bullet 1848:  The March Insurrection in Berlin
bullet 1848:  National Song of Hungary - lyrics
bullet 1848:  Popular Disorder in the Provinces (France)
bullet 1848:  Proclamations of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Palermo, Italy
bullet 1848:  Rules for the Election of a German National Assembly (Frankfurt Parliament)
bullet 1848:  "Street Barricade Scene, Milan, March 1848" - G. Mazzola
bullet 1848:  "To the Electors of the Seine" - Citizen Etienne Arago
bullet 1848:  Various Governments' Concerns about the 1848 Revolutions
bullet 1848:  Victor Hugo's Description of the Barricades - from Les Miserables
bullet 1848:  "Women on the Barricade, Near the Porte St. Denis" - drawing in The Illustrated London News (7/1)
bullet 1849:  The Frankfurt Constitution
bullet 1849:  "History of the Revolution of 1848 in France" - Alphonse de Lamartine
bullet 1849:  Hungarian Declaration of Independence
bullet 1849:  Hungarian Declaration of Independence
bullet mid-19c:  Peter Kropotkin's Description of Nobles and Serfs in Pre-Emancipation Russia
bullet 1850s:  Giuseppi Mazzini and the Italian Nation
bullet 1850:  "The Law" - Frederic Bastiat  (part I)    (part II)     (part III)
bullet 1851:  "1848 and the Movement for Women's Rights" - Jeanne Deroin and Pauline Roland
bullet 1852:  Lajos Kossuth's speech at the dinner given in his honor by the U.S. Congress in Washington DC (1/7)
bullet 1852:  Louis Napoleon's Speech at Bordeaux Establishing the Second French Empire
bullet 1852:  On Nationality as a Key to Social Development - Giuseppe Mazzini
bullet 1854:  "The Charge of the Light Brigade" - poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson
bullet 1855:  Coronation of Tsar Alexander II
bullet 1855:  Granny: Scenes from Country Life - Bozena Nemcova - Czech Nationalism Finds a Literary Outlet
bullet 1855:  Speech in the House of Lords Defending His Conduct at Balaklava - Earl of Luccan
bullet 1856:  Treaty of Paris of 1856
bullet 1857:  Excerpts from the Diaries of Queen Victoria - on the Opening of the Great Exhibition/Crystal Palace
bullet 1857:  Crystal Palace - drawing
bullet 1858:  Plombières Agreement - Cavour to Napoleon III
bullet 1858:  Plombières Agreement - Cavour to Victor Emmanuel II
bullet 1859:  Armistice of Villafranca - between Napoleon III & Franz-Joseph II
bullet 1859:  Franco-Sardinian Alliance
bullet 1860:  Giuseppi Garibaldi Encourages His Soldiers
bullet 1860:  Report on the Conquest of Naples - Giuseppi Garibaldi
bullet 1861:  The Emancipation Manifesto - Tsar Alexander (3/3)
bullet 1861:  Nikolai Turgenieff on the Emancipation Of Russian Serfs
bullet 1867:  The Austrian Constitution
bullet 1867:  Memoirs of the Ausgleich - Count von Beust
bullet 1868:  The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1868 (Nagodba)
bullet 1869:  Leon Gambetta - The Belleville Manifesto
bullet 1870:  Address of the Positivist Society of Paris, November
bullet 1870:  Defeat and Capture of Napoleon III - letter by Otto Von Bismarck
bullet 1870:  The Ems Telegram
bullet 1870:  The Fatherland is in Danger!, September 6
bullet 1870:  The French Minister of Foreign Affairs on the Downfall of the Second Empire
bullet 1870:  The Republic is Proclaimed, September 4
bullet 1870:  A War Correspondent in the Franco-Prussian War
bullet 1870:  "The Watch on the Rhine" - song lyrics by Max Schneckenberger
bullet 1871:  Decree on the Separation of Church and State, April 3
bullet 1871:  King Victor Emmanuel's Speech to the Italian Parliament
bullet 1871:  The Marxist Analysis of The Civil War in France- The Paris Commune - Karl Marx
bullet 1871:  Manifesto of the Paris Commune, April 19
bullet 1871:  The National Guard Opposes Prussian Entry Into Paris, February 28
bullet 1871:  One Day under the Paris Commune, 1871 - John Leighton
bullet 1871:  The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State - Mikhail Bakunin
bullet 1871:  Proclamation of the German Empire
bullet 1871:  Thiers declares victory over the Commune, 23 May
bullet 1871:  To the People of Paris, March 19
bullet 1873:  Ludwig Windthorst Speaks in the Prussian Parliament
bullet 1875:  The Gotha and Erfurt Programs
bullet 1875:  The Stara Zagora Uprising - Zachary Stroyanoff
bullet 1875-78:  The Eastern Crisis of 1875-78 - several different documents
bullet 1876:  The Massacre of Bulgarians - Sir Edwin Pears
bullet 1878:  The Greeks of Today - Charles K. Tuekerman
bullet 1878:  The Transylvanian Germans - Andrew F. Crosse
bullet 1878:  The Treaty of Berlin - Excerpts on the Balkans
bullet 1878:  What is "Communism"? ... - from the Irish World (6/1)
bullet 1879:  The Dual Alliance Between Austria-Hungary and Germany
bullet 1880:  "Charge of the Light Brigade" - poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson
bullet 1880:  The Commune of Paris - Peter Kropotkin
bullet 1880:  Bismarck in the Reichstag and at Home - George Makepeace Towle
bullet 1880:  Helmuth von Moltke (the Elder) on War
bullet 1881:  Peter Kropotkin on the Assassination of Alexander II
bullet 1881:  The Three Emperors League
bullet 1881:  Letter of the Revolutionary Committee to Alexander III
bullet 1882:  The Triple Alliance
bullet 1884:  Humanum Genus - papal encyclical against Free Masonry - Pope Leo XIII (4/20)
bullet 1886:  Bismarck's speech to the Prussian Parliament on the "Polish Question"
bullet 1888:  Speech to the German Reichstag - Otto von Bismarck
bullet 1890:  "Fall From Power" - Otto von Bismarck
bullet 1890:  A Little Jewish Girl in the Russian Pale - Mary Antin
bullet 1890-98:  Program of the Pan-German League
bullet 1891:  The Erfurt Program - Program of the Social Democratic Party in Germany
bullet 1891:  Russia's Imperial Destiny - Prince Ukhtomskii
bullet 1891:  Kaiser Wilhelm II Speaks at the Swearing-in of New Recruits in Potsdam
bullet 1894:  Bulgarian Political Attitudes - Edward Dicey
bullet 1896:  On the Jewish State - Theodore Hertzl
bullet 1898:  Concerning the Jews - Mark Twain   
bullet 1898:  J'Accuse - Emile Zola
bullet 1898:  A Day with Kaiser Wilhelm II - Maurice Leudet
bullet 1898:  Otto von Bismark - Memoirs
bullet 1899:  Opinion Poll, Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung
bullet late 19c:  "The German Fatherland" - song lyrics by Ernst Moritz Arndt
bullet late 19c:  Leo Deutsch on Vera Figner and theV narod (go-to-the-people) Movement
bullet 1900:  The Life of a Polish Peasant - Jan Slomka
bullet 1901:  Speech to the North German Regatta Association ("A Place in the Sun") - Kaiser
Wilhelm II of Germany
bullet 1902:  The Dancing Dervishes - Julia Pardoe
bullet 1905:  Coaling at Sea - Commander Vladimir Semenoff
bullet 1905:  French Socialist Program
bullet 1905:  Petty Bourgeois and Proletarian Socialism - Lenin
bullet 1905:  Programme of the Union of the Russian People
bullet 1906:  Russian Fundamental Law (4/23)
bullet 1907:  An Attack on the Bashi-Bazou - Arthur D. Howden-Smith
bullet 1908:  Interview with Kaiser Wilhelm II in The London Daily Telegraph (10/28)
bullet 1908:  The Young Turks' Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire
bullet 1909:  Indian Home Rule - Mohandas Gandhi  
bullet 1912:  "If I Were Kaiser" - Heinrich Class
bullet 1912:  The Siege of Adrianople - Philip Gibbs