bullet 1900:  A Preview of the 20c 
bullet Albert Einstein (biography)
bullet Alexander Palace Time Machine:  Everyday Life in a Romanov Palace
bullet Amedeo Modigliani (WeMuseum)
bullet Art Nouveau (Artcyclopedia) - large list of artists and their works
bullet Beatrice Potter Web (Spartacus Site)
bullet Benjamin Disraeli (Spartacus Site)
bullet Bloody Sunday:  The Political Progression of the Workers' Movement in Early Twentieth Century Russia
bullet "Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Failure of Reform in Austria-Hungary" - lecture
bullet British House of Commons Election Results:  1832-1983 (Spartacus Site)
bullet Charles Darwin and Evolution
bullet Creating French Culture:  Treasures from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France
bullet The Crystal Palace Exhibit
bullet Cubism (Artcyclopedia)
bullet Dickens' London:  The East End
bullet Domestic Life in 19c England
bullet Early 20th Century Cultural Conflicts
bullet Early Modern Art
bullet Edvard Munch
bullet Edward VII of England (Spartacus Site)
bullet The Emancipation of British Women:  1750-1920 (Spartacus)
bullet The Empire That Was Russia:  Ethnic Diversity
bullet The Empire That Was Russia:  People at Work
bullet "Enfranchising Women: The Politics of Women's Suffrage in Europe 1789-1945" - tutorial with documents
and other resources
bullet European Art Nouveau
bullet Evolution: Darwin (PBS)
bullet Extracts from the Times of London (1850-1851) on the culture of Victorian London
bullet The Fabian Society (Spartacus Site)
bullet Fauvism (Artcyclopedia) - large list of artists and their works
bullet The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874
bullet Futurism
bullet Georges Braque
bullet Grandmother of Europe:  Queen Victoria, Her Children, and Her Grandchildren
bullet H. G. Wells (Spartacus Site)
bullet High Victorian Gothic Architecture in England - many photos
bullet The House of Romanov:  Geneological Chart
bullet The House of Saxe-Coburg-Windsor Genealogical Chart (England)
bullet Images of Black Victorians in Britain
bullet Impressionism (Artcyclopedia) - large list of artists and their works
bullet Impressionism (Web Museum)
bullet The Impressionists (Biography.com)
bullet "Jack the Ripper As the Threat of Outcast London - Robert F. Haggard in Essays in History
bullet Map-->"Two Solutions to the Eastern Question: The Treaty of San Stefano; The Congress of Berlin:  1878"
bullet Monuments and Dust:  The Culture of Victorian London
bullet Nietzsche, Freud, and the Thrust Toward Modernism (1) - from the series "Lectures on 20c Europe"
bullet Nietzsche, Freud, and the Thrust Toward Modernism (2) - from the series "Lectures on 20c Europe"
bullet Pablo Picasso
bullet People of Action During the 19c
bullet People of Ideas During the 19c
bullet The Perspectives of Nietzsche
bullet Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's Collected Works
bullet Post-Impressionism - large list of artists and their works
bullet The Posters of Toulouse-Lautrec
bullet The Pre-Raphaelites
bullet Prints Abound:  Paris in the 1890s (National Gallery of Art)
bullet Queen Victoria (Spartacus Site)
bullet Queen Victoria:  Images of Her World [100s of black and white photos]
bullet Random Thoughts on the Intellectual History of 20c Europe - from the series "Lectures on 20c Europe"
bullet The Revolution of 1905 in Russia
bullet The Second Industrial Revolution
bullet The Second Reich
bullet Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna
bullet Socialism:  Venn Diagram
bullet The Stolypin Agrarian Reform, 1906
bullet Symbolism Art Movement (Artcyclopedia) - large list of artists and their works
bullet Victoria's London
bullet Victorian London
bullet Victoria Research Web
bullet Victoria Station
bullet The Victorian Census Project
bullet Victorian Epics
bullet The Victorian Era - articles in the magazine, History in Focus
bullet The Victorian Web
bullet Victorian Web Sites
bullet Vienna 1900
bullet Wassily Kandinski
bullet "The Western Traditions" video series on line - The Annenburg Foundation
bullet William Gladstone (Spartacus Site)
bullet William Morris (Spartacus Site)
bullet Women and Birth Control (Spartacus Site)
bullet Zionism

                             How to read a primary source document
Why Study History Through Primary Sources

bullet 1840-1900:  The Spread of Railways in the 19c - charts
bullet 1854:  Caroline Norton - English Laws for Women in the Nineteenth Century
bullet 1855:  Caroline Norton - Letter to the Queen on Marriage and Divorce Bill
bullet 1856:  A General View of Positivism - Auguste Comte
bullet 1857:  Social Darwinism - Herbert Spenser
bullet 1857:  Women and Work - Barbara Leigh Smith
bullet 1858:  "A House of Mercy" - Bessie Rainer Parkes
bullet 1859:  Origin of Species - Charles Darwin
bullet 1860:  "Medicine as a Profession for Women" - Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell
bullet 1861:  Czar Alexander II's Address in the State Council Emancipating the Russian Serfs
bullet 1854:  "The Case for Equal Education" - read at the National Assoc. for the Promotion of Social Science
bullet 1864:  Cuanta Cura - encyclical by Pope Pius IX
bullet 1866:  "The Exclusion of Women from the Franchise" - John Stuart Mill in the House of Commons (7/17)
bullet 1866:  'A Reform Letter from a Single Lady', Punch (5/5)
bullet 1867:  The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered - Helen Taylor
bullet 1867:  "A Leap in the Dark" - political cartoon on the 1867 Reform Bill - John Tenniel in Punch  (8/3)
bullet 1867:  The right of women to vote under the Reform Act - R. M. Pankhurst
bullet 1868:  "The Enfranchised Washerwoman" - poem in Punch 9/19
bullet 1869:  Reasons for and against the Enfranchisement of Women - Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon
bullet 1869:  The Subjugation of Women - John Stuart Mill
bullet 1870:  The Ladies Protest - Josephine Butler
bullet 1870-1913:  Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization in the Western World
bullet 1871:  The Descent of Man - Charles Darwin
bullet 1871:  The Internationale (lyrics and sound files)
bullet 1871:  "Less Than Justice for Women" - Women's Suffrage Journal (7/1)
bullet 1871:  On the Genesis of the Species - St. George Jackson Mivart
bullet 1872:  Points of Supposed Collision Between the Scriptures and Natural Science - J. H. Gladstone
bullet 1872:  Secret Ballot Act (Britain)
bullet 1872:  The Use of Conflict - Walter Bagehot
bullet 1873:  Liberalism Evaluated - John Stuart Mill
bullet 1873:  On the Use and Abuse of History for Life -  Friedrich Nietzsche
bullet 1874:  Why Women Desire the Franchise - Frances Power Cobbe
bullet 1875:  A New Standard of Value - Walter Bagehot
bullet 1876:  The Emancipation of Women - Maria Eugenia Echenique
bullet 1876:  Speech on the Women's Disabilities Removal Bill - John Bright, M.P. (4/26)
bullet 1877:  La Femme Libre - Léon Richer
bullet 1878:  Germ Theory and Its Application to Medicine and Surgery - Louis Pasteur
bullet 1879:  Geographical Evolution - Archibald Geikie
bullet 1879:  "What is to be Done with the Slums?" - W. M. Torrens in Macmillan's Magazine (April)
bullet 1880:  Extension of the Germ Theory - H. C. Ernst
bullet 1880:  A Portuguese Shooting Party - Oswald Crawford
bullet 1880:  Science and Culture - Thomas H. Huxley
bullet 1883:  "Common Sense and the Dwellings of the Poor:  Part I -- Improvements Now Practicable" - Octavia Hill in The Nineteenth Century (Dec.)
bullet 1883:  "Common Sense and the Dwellings of the Poor:  Part II -- The Mischief of State Aid" - Lord Shaftsbury in The Nineteenth Century (Dec.)
bullet 1883:  "Common Sense and the Dwellings of the Poor:  Part III -- The Existing Law" - H. O. Arnold-Forster in The Nineteenth Century (Dec.)
bullet 1883:  "Common Sense and the Dwellings of the Poor:  Part IV -- A Workman's Reflections" - William Glazier in The Nineteenth Century (Dec.)
bullet 1883:  Corrupt Practices Act (Britain)
bullet 1883:  Homes of the London Poor - Octavia Hill
bullet 1883:  "Labourers' and Artisans Dwellings" - Joseph Chamberlain in the Fortnightly Review (12/1)
bullet 1884:  Extent of the Universe - Simon Newcomb
bullet 1884:  The Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State - Friedrich Engels
bullet 1884:  Why I Am A Socialist - William Morris
bullet 1885:  Germinal -  Emile Zola
bullet 1885:  "Methodism and 'The Bitter Cry of Outcast London'" - Forster Crozier
bullet 1885:  Redistribution Act (Britain)
bullet 1887:  Observations of Bloody Sunday Riots in London
bullet 1888:  The Struggle for Existence - Thomas H. Huxley
bullet 1889:  An Appeal Against Female Suffrage (June) - Mrs. Humphry Ward, et. al.
bullet 1889:  The Declaration of Utrecht
bullet 1889:  The Development of the Democratic Ideal - Sydney Webb
bullet 1889:  The Historic Basis of Socialism - Sydney Webb
bullet late 19c:  Evolutionary Socialism - Edouard Bernstein
bullet 1891:  On the Condition of the Working Classes [Rerum Novarum] - Pope Leo XIII
bullet 1892:  Female Suffrage - A Letter to Samuel Smith, M. P. from William Gladstone (4/11)
bullet 1893:  "Scream" - painting by Edvard Munch
bullet 1896:  Archbishops of England Reply to Pope Leo XIII
bullet 1896:  Why I am a Socialist - William Morris
bullet 1898:  A Critique of Nihilism by Constantine Pobedonostsev: "The Ideals of Unbelief"
bullet 1898:  J'accuse - Emile Zola
bullet 1898:  The Warfare of Science and Theology in Christendom - Andrew White
bullet late 19c:  Five Years of My Life - Captain Alfred Dreyfus
bullet 1900:  The Interpretation of Dreams - Sigmund Freud
bullet 1900:  National Life From the Standpoint of Science - Karl Pearson
bullet 1900:  Sergei Witte on the Tasks for Economic Policy
bullet 1900:  Student Life at the German Universities - Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick
bullet 1901:  Friedrich Nietzsche's The Will to Power
bullet 1903:  Reformist Socialism - Alexandre Millerland
bullet 1906:  The Fundamental Laws (4/23)
bullet 1906:  The Suffrage Movement Radicalized - from Emile Pankhurst's memoirs
bullet 1908:  Reflections on Violence - Georges Sorel
bullet 1908:  The Social Gospel - Walter Rauschenbusch
bullet 1908:  Turgeniev's definition of Nihilism, as presented in the Novel, Fathers and Sons
bullet 1908:  Women's National Anti-Suffrage League - Speech by Mrs. Humphry Ward (7/21)
bullet 1909:  The Chemical Industry on the Continent - Harold Baron
bullet 1910:  The Oath Against Modernism - Pope Pius X
bullet 1911:  From Liberalism - L. T. Hobhouse
bullet 1911:  The Principles of Scientific Management - Frederick W. Taylor
bullet 1911:  "Winter Study With Church" - painting by Wassily Kandinsky
bullet 1912:  An Exposition of Darwinism by a Contemporary Naturalist - Alfred Wallace
bullet 1912:  The Sinking of the Titanic - Jay Henry Mowbray
bullet 1913:  "Madamoiselle Pognania" - painting by Constantin Brancusi
bullet 1913:  The New Liberalism - W. L. Blease
bullet 1913:  Selected chapters from The Feminist Movement - Ethel Snowden
bullet 1913:  Speech by Emily Pankhurst
bullet 1914:  My Own Story - Emily Pankhurst