Reconstruction (1)

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1 What two issues lay at the heart of Reconstruction?:
whether the federal or state government was ultimately sovereign, and whether Africa-Americans or Native Americans were the most oppressed minority group.
which party would gain the ascendance, and how the government could regulate the economy.
the future of political and economic power for freed slaves, and the future of North-South economic and political relations.
rebuilding the North's shattered economy and restoring the South's shattered society.

2 The "grandfather clause"?:
resulted in the election of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876.
denied black Americans the franchise in the South.
required federal troops to supervise voting in Southern elections.
determined whether or not an ex-slave was a freedman.

3 Under new President Andrew Johnson, presidential Reconstruction?:
made it possible for former high-ranking Confederates to assume positions of power in the reconstructed southern governments.
would implement a harsher program on the South than Lincoln had called for.
adhered substantially to the views of Congressional leaders.
never was implemented because Congress passed its own program before Johnson's could go into effect.

4 In the Supreme Court case of United States v. Cruikshank (1876), the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment?:
applied the Bill of Rights to all the states.
guaranteed the vote to all Blacks.
provided that separate but equal facilities were constitutionally permissible.
covered only violations of civil rights by the states, and not violations by private individuals.

5 The North interpreted Black Codes as?:
evidence that the South sought to keep freemen in an economically dependent and legally inferior status.
evidence that the South, by granting limited rights such as allowing jury service, was slowly accommodating to an improved status for former slaves.
a realistic solution by the South to the problems created by sudden emancipation.
dangerous experiment by the South that could lead to social equality for blacks in the North.

6 Which of the following was NOT a feature of Abraham Lincoln's "10 Percent Plan"?:
state governments could be formed when at least 10% of those who had voted in 1860 had sworn allegiance to the Union and accepted emancipation.
Confederate officials and army and naval officers needed presidential pardons before they could participate in the new governments.
southern plantations were to be confiscated and divided among the blacks who had formerly worked there as slaves.
freedmen were excluded from participation because they had not been voters in 1860.

7 During the Reconstruction, what groups was the backbone of the Republican party in the South, providing eight out of ten Republican votes?:
Ku Klux Klaners.

8 In 1867, Secretary of State Seward accomplished an enduring success in foreign relations for the Johnson administration when he?:
commissioned the building of an all-new ironclad navy.
recognized the independent republic of Hawaii.
purchased Alaska from Russia.
called for American aid to republican rebels in Cuba.
all of these choices are correct.

9 In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant?:
transformed his personal popularity into a large majority in the popular vote.
owed his victory to the votes of former slaves.
gained his victory by winning the votes of the majority of whites.
all of these choices are correct.

10 Americans in the post-Civil War decades who waved the bloody shirt were?:
Republicans denouncing corruption in office.
southern Democrats reviving the sectional spirit of the Confederacy.
Union Army veterans claiming their pensions.
labor supporters protesting the Haymarket riot.
Republicans reviving the memory of southern Democratic disloyalty during the Civil War.

11 The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was important because it?:
prohibited slavery within the United States.
guaranteed equal protection under the law for every American citizen.
prohibited any state from denying an American citizen the right to vote based on race/ethnic background, color, or having previously been a slave.
provided Congress with the power to establish and collect income taxes.
prohibited any state from denying women the right to vote.

12 The president associated with the "Sellout of 1876" was?:
Rutherford B. Hayes.
U. S. Grant.
Andrew Johnson.
William Howard Taft.
James Buchanan.